DETERMINATION OF THE MASS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTIC OF THERMAL DRYING AND OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF PUMPKIN AND BITTER LEAF

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  415 Users found this project useful  |  Price ₦3,000

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

DETERMINATION OF THE MASS TRANSFER CHARACTERISTIC OF THERMAL DRYING AND OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF PUMPKIN AND BITTER LEAF

 

ABSTRACT

The experiment was carried out  and three osmotic solutions were prepared, “hypertonic solution 60% concentrated, hypotonic solution 40% concentrated and isotonic solution 50% concentrated” and oven drying was also carried in the course of the experiment, the effect of sodium chloride (osmotic agent) concentration, temperature and immersion time on overall mass transfer coefficient, effective diffusivity, drying rate weight loss and shrinkage ratio on oven drying and osmotic dehydration of Pumpkin  and bitter leaf. Results showed  that both pumpkin and bitter leaf  had a highest mass transfer coefficient  in oven drying at highest temperature of 80oC, for pumpkin leaf 0.149(m/min), bitter leaf was  0.149(m/min), the results were also obtain for osmotic dehydration at 80Oc at highest concentration (Hypertonic solution) had the highest mass transfer coefficient, for pumpkin leaf was 0.015(m/min) for bitter leaf was obtained to 0.032(m/min). For osmotic dehydration, both samples weight loss percent (WL%) for hypertonic solution at 800C for 90mins had the highest weight loss percent, but the shrinkage ratio decrease with increase in time.The mass transfer during oven drying of pumpkin and bitter leaf was described using Fickian equation of diffusion with drying taking place in the falling rate period, the effective moisture diffusivity value showed temperature dependence on both samples. Effective diffusivity values were also determined for oven drying at different temperature,  and the values increases as the  temperature increases, for pumpkin and bitter leaf at 600C, 700C and 800C, the effective diffusivities were 1.0E-09, 1.87106E-09 and 2.1843E-09m2/min and 8.52966E-10, 1.00015E-9 and 2.45308E-08m2/min.

CHAPTER ONE

 1.0      INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

Fruits and vegetables contribute a crucial source of nutrients in daily human diet, the world fruit production is estimated to be 434.7 million metric tones and vegetables 90.0 million metric tones. India is the second largest fruits and vegetable producer and its annual production is 44 million metric tones from an area of 3, 949, 000 haduring 2000-2002 (Srivastava& Kumar, 2002). Fruits and vegetables losses in the developing countries are considerably high. In India, post harvest losses of fruits and vegetables are estimated as more than 25 percent. Many processing techniques can be employed to preserve fruits and vegetables by drying and dehydration is one of the most important operations that are widely practiced because of considerable saving in packaging, storageetc

Vegetables contain nearly 70% to 95% of moisture which make them highly perishable. If this moisture is reduced to some extent, bulk transportation of the final product can be made to other parts of the country where it is not available. Also the shelf life of the product is increased. Conventionally sun drying and hot air drying is used to dry and preserve the product. This produced discolored and shrieked products which were of not interest to patronage. When osmotic dehydration is used prior to drying steps it is evident that it conserves energy and reduces the heat damage to the product in terms of color, flavor and aromaetc

Osmotic dehydration aims at extending life of food by removing water without phase transition [Kowalska and Lenart 2001, Matuska et al. 2006]. The process is carried out by immersing the raw material in a hypertonic solution (solution with high concentration of sugars, sodium chloride,  etc.).

 Osmotic dehydration is used for foods with a tissue structure, such as shredded fruit and vegetables [Torreggiani 1993]. The method is based on the natural phenomenon of osmosis through cell membranes of biological material [Shi and Le Maguer 2002]. In the osmotic dehydration the process of water flow to the outside of food material takes place, and entering of substances dissolved in a hypertonic solution into the product. Since the cell membrane is not perfectly selective, the solutes present in cells (organic acids, sugars, minerals, fragrances, and colorants) can pass with water into the hypertonic solution [Derossi et al. 2008].

1.2Mass transfer phenomena during osmotic dehydration

There are three major types of counter current mass transfer in osmotic concentration process (Karthiayani, 2004;Tiwari, 2005) (Figure 2).

1. Important water out flow from product to solution.

2. A solute transfer, from the solution to the product; it makes thus possible to introduce the desired amount of an active principle, a preservative agent, any solute or nutritional interest, or a sensoryquality improvement of the product.

3. Leaching out of products own solutes (sugar, organic acids, minerals, vitamins etc.), which is quantitatively negligible when compares with the first two types of transfer, but essential with regard to the composition of final product/

Drying of fruits  and vegetables  such as pumpkin, fruit pepper and bitter leaves e.t.c is one the most time and energy consuming process in the modern food industry [sunjka et al 20004]. However these fruit and vegetable are usually in short supply during dry season because they are perishable crops which deteriorate within a few days afterharvest (which occur mainly in rainy season). Preserving these crops in their fresh state for months has been a problem that is yet unsolved [famurewa et al 2006; Agarryetal 2006]. Drying processes play an important role in the preservation of agricultural products. They are defined as a process of moisture removal due to simultaneous heart and mass transfer in which energy must be supplied [waewsak et al 2006]

1.3CONDITIONS FOR DRYING

The general condition include the following:

1)      Heat is transfer by evaporation of liquid or moisture from the surface of the solid

2)Mass is equally transferred

1.4STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Most of the work done on this subject have been on the change that occur in the nutritional properties and mass transfer at different temperature, immersion time and concentration of the solution

1.5 PROPOSE SOLUTION

This works tends to do proper investigation on the drying rate and mass transfer characteristic in different osmotic solution and  thermal drying of vegetable  to bring it to the awareness of the public, this work tends to bring out the importance of choosing the best optimum temperature and best osmotic solution for thermal drying and osmotic dehydration

1.6AIM

The aim of this research work is to investigate the mass transfer characteristic of pumpkin and Bitter leaf

1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following objectives were use to achieved the aim.

1)To investigate the effect of temperature on drying rate of pumpkin and bitter leaf

2)To investigate the effect of osmotic concentration  of pumpkin and Bitter leaf

3)To investigate the effect of time for drying rate and osmotic dehydration for Pumpkin and Bitter leaf

4)        To determine the optimum condition of thermal drying and osmotic dehydration.

.1.8 RELEVENCE OF STUDY

This is necessary to determine the suitability of the drying process that will help in mass transfer, and it also provide a suitable method that will help reduce crop loss in Nigeria.

1.9METHOD AND SCOPE

The method used in this work include;

1). Osmotic solution (hypertonic, Isotonic and hypotonic solution) using NaCL as the osmotic agent , were prepared at different temperature interval the solution was stirred until complete dissolution, the samples were pumpkin and bitter leaf

2). Samples of pumpkin and bitter leaves were weight and spread on a metal tray which was then place in a laboratory oven. The drying was carried out at different temperature of 600C, 700C and 800C

3). The effective diffusivity was determine by using fickian equation

The scope of this research is limited to the study of mass transfer coefficient during thermal drying and osmotic dehydration of pumpkin and Bitter leaf

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent
Merry From BSU
I am now a graduate because of iprojectmaster.com, God Bless you guys for me.
Excellent
Samuel From Ajayi Crowther University
You guys just made life easier for students. Thanks alot iprojectmaster.com
Excellent
Musa From Ahmadu Bello University
Thank you iprojectmaster for saving my life, please keep it up and may God continue to bless you people.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!