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ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF YOUNG COCOS NUCIFERA (COCONUT)

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 58  |  594 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

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ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF YOUNG COCOS NUCIFERA (COCONUT) WATER AND METHALONIC EXTRACT OF THE YOUNG COCOS NUCIFERA (COCONUT) HUSK

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION 

Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobials and many other drugs. The potentials of higher plants as source for new drugs is still largely unexplored.  Antibiotic resistance has become a global concern  (Westhet  al., 2004).  The clinical efficacy of many existing antibiotics is  being threatened  by  the  emergence  of  multidrug-resistant pathogens  (Bandow,  2003).  Many infectious diseases have been  known  to  be  treated  with  herbal  remedies  throughout  the  history  of mankind.  Natural products, either as  pure  compounds  or  as  standardized  plant  extracts,  provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity.

 

There is a continuous and urgent need to discover new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel  mechanisms  of  action  for  new  and  re-emerging  infectious  diseases  (Rojas  et  al., 1992).  Therefore, researchers are  increasingly  turning  their  attention  to local  herbs,  looking  for  new leads to develop better drugs against microbial infections (Benkeblia, 2004).  The increasing failure of chemotherapeutics and antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic microbial infectious agents  has  led  to  the screening  of  several  medicinal  plants  for their  potential  antimicrobial activity  (Kapila, 2005; Runyoro  et  al.,2006). The rising prevalence of antibiotics resistant pathogenic microorganisms raises the demand for finding new alternative antimicrobial agents. The drugs already in use to treat infectious disease are of concern because drug safety remains an enormous global issue.

 

Most of the synthetic drugs cause side effects and also most of the microbes developed resistant against the synthetic drugs (Chanda and Rakholiya 2011). To alleviate this problem, antimicrobial compounds from potential plants should be explored. These drugs from plants are less toxic; side effects are scanty and also cost  effective.  They  are  effective  in  the  treatment  ofinfectious  diseases  while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with synthetic antimicrobials (Harishchandraet al., 2012).

 

Published studies in medical journals show that coconut in one form or  another  may provide a  wide range  of  health  benefits.  The  coconut  plant Cocos  nucifera (family  Arecaceae)  is  considered  as  an important  fruit  crop  in  tropical  countries.  It  is  commonly  available  plant  with  wide  variety  of applications in food, drinks,  fibers, building  materials and various  chemicals finding  their way into a huge  range  of  modern  day  products.  Being highly  nutritious  coconuts  have  also  been  studied  for medicinal qualities.  

 

Modern medical science is now confirming the  medicinal qualities of Cocos nucifera  which are  used for the treatment wide range of infections. Based on the knowledge of the traditional herbs used for the treatment  for  local  application,  coconut  husk  can  be  use  as  a  topical  antimicrobial.  As  preliminary investigation of the use of coconut husk, the antimicrobial activity can be evaluated. 

 

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The specific objectives are to: 

(a)  Evaluate  the  phytochemical  and  antimicrobial  activities  of  Methalonic  extract  of  young  Cocos nucifera husk on selected pathogenic microorganisms.  

(b)  Evaluate  the  antimicrobial  activities  andyoung  Cocos  nucifera water  on  selected  pathogenic microorganisms.

 

1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH

Cocos nucifera husk and Cocos nucifera water are traditionally used in the treatment of wide variety of diseases,  it  has  been  used  from  time  immemorial  for  the  treatment  of  carcinogenic  infections.  This study scientifically justifies the use of young Coconut husk and young Coconut water in traditional folk medicine and to compare their antimicrobial potency with the commercial antibiotics.

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