Select Currency
Translate this page


Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 65  |  482 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000






1.1   Background of the Study

A pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground. They use either no water or one to three liters per flush with pour-flush pit latrines. When properly built and maintained they can decrease the spread of disease by reducing the amount of human feces in the environment from open defecation. This decreases the transfer of pathogens between feces and food by flies. These pathogens are major causes of infectious diarrhea and intestinal worm infections. Infectious diarrhea resulted in about 0.7 million deaths in children under five years old in 2011 and 250 million lost school days. Pit toilets are the lowest cost method of separating feces from people. 

A pit toilet generally consists of three major parts: a hole in the ground, a slab or floor with a small hole, and a shelter. The shelter is often known as an outhouse. The pit is typically at least 3 meters (10 feet) deep and 1 m (3.2 feet) across. The World Health Organization recommends they be built a reasonable distance from the house balancing issues of easy access versus that of smell. The distance from groundwater and surface water should be as large as possible to decrease the risk of groundwater pollution. The hole in the slab should not be larger than 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) to prevent children falling in. Light should be prevented from entering the pit to reduce access by flies. This may require the use of a lid to cover the hole in the floor when not in use. When the pit fills to within 0.5 meters (1.6 feet) of the top, it should be either emptied or a new pit constructed and the shelter moved or re-built at the new location. The management of the fecal sludge removed from the pit is complicated. There are both environment and health risks if not done properly.

A lot of public toilets poses very serious problem to the people of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state and also to other places across the country. The problem of open defecation which some people often refer to as going to the bush or bush shitting has persistently been difficult to address in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state and Nigeria because of the unavailability of good public and home toilets both in the cities and local communities or villages. A lot of people live without proper sanitation in Udi and these people have to decide on daily basis how to organize defecation without feeling ashamed or fear.

Pit latrines may or may not be an enjoyable experience to use. Problems may occur when the pit latrine is shared by too many people, is not cleaned daily and not emptied when the pit is full. In such cases, flies and odour can be a massive nuisance. Also, pit latrines are usually dark places which are difficult to keep clean. Often, hand washing facilities are missing. For these reasons, shared pit latrines can be quite uncomfortable to use in developing countries. Also, there might be cultural preferences for open defecation and these may be difficult to overcome with unattractive toilet designs.

1.2   Statement of the problem

Pit toilets are one of the most common human excreta disposal systems in low-income countries and their use is on the rise as countries aim to meet the sanitation-related target of the Millennium Development Goals. There is concern however that the discharges of chemical and microbial contaminant from pit toilets to underground water may negatively affect human health.

1.3   Significance of the study

The study aims to quantify the impact of pit toilet on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state, interpret findings, analyze implications, and convey high level results and implications to national decision-makers for sustainable and better environment of Udi residents and other communities where pit toilets trend in Nigeria.

1.4   Objectives of the study

The goals of this study are:

To systematically review empirical studies of the impacts of pit toilets on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State.

To evaluate public pit toilets siting standard.

To identify knowledge gaps regarding the potential for and the consequences of public pit toilets on citizens of Nigeria.

1.5   Research questions

1. What is the significant impact of pit toilet on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state?

2. What is the siting standard of public pit toilets in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state?

3. How much knowledge do Nigerians have on the potential and consequences of public pit toilets?

1.6   Research hypotheses

Ho: There is no significant impact of pit toilets on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state.

Hi: There is significant impact of pit toilets on the residents of Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state.

Ho: There is no siting standard of public pit toilets in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state.

Hi: There is a siting standard of public pit toilets in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state.

Ho: Nigerians are not aware of the potentials and consequences of public pit toilets.

Hi: Nigerians are aware of the potentials and consequences of public pit toilets.

1.7   Limitations of the study

The study was carried out to investigate the impact of public pit toilet system in Enugu state, Udi Local Government Area to be precise. The study is limited to Udi Local Government Area in Enugu state because of her representative nature of pit toilets in Nigeria, proximity to the researcher, time and financial constraints.

1.8   Scope of the study

This study is on the impact of public pit toilet system in Enugu state with particular emphasis on its associated problems in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state as the case study.

1.9   Definition of terms

Public:  This pertains to a state, nation, or whole community; proceeding from, relating to, or affecting the whole body of people.

Pit Toilet System: This is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground.

Problems: This is a matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be dealt with and overcome.


Albonico M, Allen H, Chitsulo L, Engels D, Gabrielli AF, Savioli L. 2008. Controlling soil-transmitted helminthiasis in pre-school-age children through preventive chemotherapy.

Baars JK. 1957. Travel of pollution, and purification en route, in sandy soils. Bull World Health Organ 16:727–747.

Banerjee G. 2011. Underground pollution travel from leach pits of on-site sanitation facilities: a case study. Clean Technol Environ Policy 13(3):489–497.

Banks D, Karnachuk OV, Parnachev VP, Holden W, Frengstad B. 2002. Groundwater contamination from rural pit latrines: examples from Siberia and Kosova. J Chartered Inst Water Environ Manage 16(2):147–152.

Cairncross S, Bartram J, Cumming O, Brocklehurst C. 2010a. Hygiene, sanitation, and water: what needs to be done? Plos Med 7(11):e1000365; doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000365 [Online 16 November 2010].


Not What You Are Looking For?

For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 2926 373

+234 701 5050 881

Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.


  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.


How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!