In recent times, the demand for interior decorations and cylindrical objects has been on the increase from the furniture and boundary industries. With it, comes the choice of various designs and models. In order to meet up with the increasing demand of the industries led to the design of a good number of machines that can be used by the craftsman to create different wood designs, amongst which is the wood lather machine.
Apart from putting into practical the theoretical knowledge acquired from the class room, the main objectives of the project are:
a) To use available local materials in fabrication.
b) To achieve a reduction in the cost of production of the machine.
c) To reduce the labour cost and time spent on using hand tools for wood dressing.
d) To create awareness for, and encouragement of indigenous technology.
e) Increase productivity and creativity.
The vital need for the fabrication of a wood lathe is significant in the much delay and time as well as energy wasted in using simple hand took to carry out operations moreover, the cost of importation of a lather machine, is too high for average user. Similar to the use of other machine tools, the wood lathes machine will help to reduce cost, save labour time and consequently increase the rate of production and craftsman’s skill. It is also important to explore the design of machines to improve on the ones already in existence.
By the early middle age the lathe is still driven by a cord, the new lathe used the tension of a bent tree branch or cut pole to provide a stronger and more convenient way of furring coordinated with the pole was a treadle, which pulled down on the cord wrapped around the work itself, or on a spindle attached to the work. The treadle regulates the speed at which the piece turned. This arrangement displeased with the need for an assistant. The troublesome feature of the early lathers that the pole and treadle system did not address was the need for continuous motion.
The search for a lather that would turn in only one direction probably ended in the fifteenth century, when the lathers powered by cranked flywheels and giant wheels powered by hand foot horse, and even water were invented, Leonardo a Vinci was one of the many inventors who designed the early continuous drive lather. However, today, wood lather machined are powered by an electric motor which provide the continuous motion needed. Although, wood lathe machines are made from metal steel, iron etc.
Traditionally, it was thought that the ancient Egyptians introduced lather turning. Perhaps as much as 4,000 years ago. Despite a lack of hard evidence, it was assumed that a civilized nation as advanced as Egypt’s – is known to develop the Potter’s wheel and bow drill – possessed the technical know – how and skill to have made the invention of the lathe inevitable. Instead, scholars now believe that the lathe was invented around a thousand years B.C., and that its development may have occurred simultaneously among the Etrusians in Italy, the Celts in Great Britain, and the inhabitants of the Crimea. By the second century B.C., the lather was known to most of the people of the Near East and Europe. Originally, the lather was vertically oriented, like the Potter’s wheel. In the case of farning, the lather was eventually mounted on a table France, to be used mainly in a standing position. Virtually all early lathes were powered by cord and required that a helper assist the Craftsman and Non- metal (Hard wood). Those the frame made of wood are faced with the problem of durability and the ability to withstand shock. However, the major problems that are prevalent with the existing lathes are:
1. Retching and vibration which translates into the spindle and bindweed thereby making it impossible to reduce anything accurately.
2. Base not rigid or heavy enough.
3. Tai/stock base do not lock down well enough and operators often retightening it.
4. Tool rest do not lock down well enough.
Finally, as the furniture and founding industries demand for cylindrical object increases, the need for effective, economical and efficient lathe arise. To meet up with the industrial demand and combat the problems found in the existing wood lathe machines, hence the embarkment of this project.
TREND IN LATHE MACHINE FABRICATION
The emergence of the lathe machine dated back to some thousand years B.C., but it gained popularity between sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Then opticians used it for cutting lenses, used in the construction of astronomical Telescopes. They modified the relatively rough technique for special purposes. Artisans and furniture makers used the large lathes in turning fancy works, though the frames were made of wood and headstock depending on the work being done. Discussed below are some related lathe machines:
A) CENTRE LATHE MACHINE
The centre lathe is used to machine metals, by rotating the work piece mounted between centers against a cutting tool. The tool can be fed both transversely and longitudinally with respect to the turning axis of the job. The tool can be operated manually of automatically and many shapes as well as different works can be carried out on the centre lathe such work as cylindrical, eccentric or conical shapes can be machined. Also done on the centre lathe are threading and boring operations.
B) CERAMIC LATHE MACHINE
The ceramic lathe is used for ceramic machining alone, though the operation is similar to that of the centre lathe.
C) WOOD LATHE
The wood lathe, just like other types of lathe, can be used to carry out a wide range of machining operations. It saves time and does not need much skill as in the use of hand tools.
DIMENSIONS AND SPECIFICATIONS
Below are the dimensions and specification as regards the fabrication of the wood lathe machine.
1. Total length of the machine 1680mm
2. Total height of the machine 1200mm
3. With of the machine 240mm
4. The electric motor
Horse power capacity 3hp
5. The space between the bed rails 140mm
6. Diameter of the headstock pulley 137mm
7. Diameter of electric motor’s pulley 98mm
8. With of tailstock 240mm
9. V – belt A-56
10. Maximum length of work piece 1100mm
11. Minimum length of work piece 300mm
13. Maximum diameter of work piece 300mm
To improve the existing wood lathe machine so that the output is increase and operator fatigue is reduced.
CONDITION OF USE
Lathe to be used in workshop environment, it must be able to withstand mechanical vibration.
Operation to be no noisier than when manually turned. Wood lather to be capable of an output higher than currently achieved in the existing once. The machine is to be operated continuously for a period of 8hours in a workshop environment without need for any attention.
The machine capacity is the distance between centers and the swing which are the two basic measurement of capacity for lathe. The distance between centers is the maximum length of wood you can turn between the headstock and the tailstock. While the swing determines the diameter of the jobs that can be turned over the bed.
RELIABILITY AND LIFE
The machine must be sufficiently reliable compare with the existing once. Life expectancy for full loading at 8hours per day must exceed 20years.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The continuous guest to have the problems of man and his growing needs solved has led to the establishment of factories and other industries, which necessitates an intermediate technology. However, simple hand tools that were in used before are no longer efficient for mass production. In the same manner the importation f wood lathe machine as a substitute for these tools, likewise has failed to meet man’s insatiable economy. Then, there comes the need for urgent attention to a better and locally made wood lathe machine.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The design and fabrication of wood lathe machine aims among other things at a maximum justification of a simple way of scraping and cutting off wood at its best quality at a minimum cost of labour, so that the financial burden of people can be reduced. The simple design and construction of the machine, makes it viable reliable, and easy to carry out maintenance services at minimum bearable cost.
SCOPE OF WORK
Essentially, the machine comprises the frame made of metal, with the headstock fixed in position; the tailstock moves along the bed of the machine, and the tool rest mounted on a cross slide which can be moved both longitudinally and transversely on the bed. It is located between the headstock and the tailstock. In operations, the machine is limited to only a turning and cutting of any type of wood. Drilling operations cannot be performed on the machine.
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