THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE
The purpose of this study was to find out the factors affecting the teaching and learning of agricultural science in Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State. The research work was also aimed at identifying the factors affecting the teaching and learning of agricultural science in Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State. In carrying out the study the samples were made up of students and teachers. A total sample size of fifty respondents were interviewed and administered questionnaires, the findings were analyzed and discussed. The result of the study revealed that insufficient land, inadequate simple farm tools, insufficient of improved instructional materials and lack of agricultural laboratory equipment are some of the factors affecting teaching and learning of agricultural science in area of study. It was recommended that, the government should as a matter of fact supply the relevant and much needed in teaching and learning to these junior secondary schools since science can best be learnt through experimentation. There should be provision of teachers with practical a agricultural science qualification to handle the subject in schools.
The term agriculture is derived from two Latin words oger meaning field and culture meaning cultivation. Literarily agriculture refers to the production of crops and rearing of animal for man use. Agricultural production involves series of activities which include the cultivation of other products into forms that could be used by man. The preparation of products include; processing, package, storage, marketing etc. agriculture is regarded as the live-blooded of a nations domestic economy and the mother of all other business occupations and professional. The development of agriculture in Nigeria will help minimize over dependence on crude oil, the market of which fluctuates. Types of agriculture are; subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture.
The Subsistence Agriculture: As men advance from the hunting and gathering stage, they developed the art of cultivating certain plants and domesticating certain animals, this was a period of self-sufficiency which was the beginning of settled life and people began to group themselves in villages. They made crude implement to provide enough food for their family. This practice is found today in every isolated area where communication has been limited; the people have not been exposed to modern ways of forming and surplus capital for investment is not available.
The Commercial Agriculture: This is the type of farming which involve cultivation of large acres of land, because most operation is usually mechanized and yield term of money, skilled labour and management. It is mostly practice by very rich farmers. The practices also required application of agrochemical and may causes environmental pollution. It may also encouragement erosion and other ecological mishaps and special marketing strategies have to be planned for successful evaluation and marketing of farm produce.
1. In this scientific age, agricultural science has an important role to play in the school and also in the economic, social and political development of any nation. Infact the main distinction between the so called development and developing countries is due to the degree of scientific development in those countries. Virtually today, people everywhere are aware of the significant role that agricultural science and products of agriculture play in the society, because of the importance attached to the study of agricultural science right from the elementary school to university level. Agricultural science is also an applied science that make use of scientific theories and principles to bring about a product or an effect. It applied principles from among others, genetics, chemistry, biology, ecology and geography etc.
2. Agricultural science played an important role in secondary schools in Ovia North east Local Government Area. because many of our farmers have little or no scientific methods of the subject and they can only be enlightened by the young ones who must have studied the subject in schools.
3. Agricultural science in secondary school must involve theories and practices therefore it embraces the use of all the sense organs practically, agricultural science makes people very healthy and physically fit. It is vital to practice agricultural science in secondary school to check the migration of our people from rural areas to the urban areas.
4. Acquisition of skills is on other direct advantages of agricultural science in secondary schools students. Because the principles practice and appreciation of agriculture help to prepared them for after school paid jobs. The acquisition of skills is one of the domains entrenched in any good educational system. Therefore, agricultural science like other practical subject helps to develop the psychomotor domains in students.
5. The focus of this research work is to investigate the factors affecting teaching and learning of agricultural science in Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State for instance, agricultural science unlike the other subject has been problem to many students. The reasons for such retrogression could be attributed to the acute shortage of professionally qualified teachers and teaching aid.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
This study intend to investigate the factors affecting the teaching and learning of agricultural science in Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State and to find solution to this factors. Based on this problem, there must be need to give serious attention so as to achieve technological advancement and help in our everyday living. Because a sound background in scientific knowledge would provide a good base for further scientific learning on the contrary, most students lack this basic background and this is as a result of some factors in teaching and learning of agricultural science by the teachers and students.
Specifically, this study will be geared towards answering questions identified below;
i. The teachers method of teaching is also responsible for the factor affecting the teaching and learning of agricultural science in Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State.
ii. Student in secondary schools see agricultural science as a dirty subject.
iii. The non-availability of teaching aids are factor in the study of agricultural science in secondary schools?
iv. The problems of acute shortage of professional qualified constitute science in secondary schools.
v. The attitude of parents is a factor affecting the teaching of agricultural science in secondary schools.
vi. Inadequate land is also a factor affecting the teaching of agricultural science.
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
This study is aimed specifically at analyzing and diagnosing the factor affecting the teaching and learning the factor affecting the teaching and learning of agricultural science and also at providing suitable suggestions that will help improve the teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State. The following are some of the specific objective to be achieved;
i. To identify the factors affecting the teaching and learning of agricultural science among secondary school students.
ii. To examine the factors affecting/inhibiting the teaching and learning of agricultural science in secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area.
iii. To find the possible ways of over-coming these factors.
iv. To make recommendations based on the findings it will hope that the findings of this project work will be of immense benefit to agricultural science teaching and learning throughout Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State, since they will be exposed to factors hindering the development of agricultural science.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will help to throw some light on the factors affecting the teaching and learning of agricultural science in the area of study. The outcome of this study will be useful to the teachers, students and government of Edo State in general, Ovia North East Local Government Area in particular. The result of the findings will guide the classroom situation; it will also be of immense benefit to the individual especially when it aims at self reliance.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study cover the attitude of teachers, students, government and parents towards agricultural science teaching and learning in secondary schools in Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State.
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