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THE CAUSES OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS.

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THE CAUSES OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

 

Abstract

The value and functionality of any educational system lie in its ability to actualize the goals of education. In educational systems, world over, the examination process makes the difference. The goals of national educational systems and indeed national development become like mirage if examination ethics is not encouraged and instituted (Nwadiani, 2005). Till date, examinations still remain the best tool for an objective assessment and evaluation of what learners have achieved after a period of schooling. Hence, any action that undermines examinations poses a great threat to the validity and reliability of examination results and certification. In Nigeria, the last two decades have witnessed an alarming rate of increase in incidents of examination misconduct especially at secondary school level. Evidences abound of increasing incidents of examination malpractice by students, teachers and parents. Examination malpractice has become so widespread that there is virtually no examination anywhere at all levels and even outside the formal school system that there is no one forms of sharp practice or the other. Every examination season witnesses the emergence of new and ingenious ways of cheating. This paper addresses the problem of examination malpractice in secondary schools in Nigeria, what sustains it, the consequences of examination malpractice and the ways through which examination malpractice could be curbed in order to give credibility to the examination process in the country.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Examination malpractice is a major challenge confronting the Nigeriaeducation system on this twenty first century. Examination malpractice is any act by student invigilators, examiners, lecturers etc. that contravenes the ethics of examination and result in a dearth of credibility of any assessment. The federal ministry of education (2007) defined examination malpractices as “any act of integrity of any assessment or evaluation system.” In 1973, the gravity of irregularities at public examination caused member countries of the West African examination council much concern to extent that the then federal military government had to promulgate a decree spelling out penalties for unethical behaviours at the then West African school certificate examination. For instance, unethical behaviour such as illegal use of live question paper and impersonation were punishable by fine of N 2,000,00 or five years imprisonment or both, (Nwana, 1982).

In 1984, the Federal Government of Nigeria enacted the famous decree 20-miscellaneous offences, which stipulates a 21 years imprisonment without any option of fine for anyone caught in any form of examination malpractice. In such attendant punishments one should expect to have an end to examination leakages but unfortunately it is to no avail. Examination malpractice permeates both internal and public examination. There have been known cases of school teachers set question for their student favorites before the actual examination are conducted. There are cases of dons passing female undergraduates because of some extra academic activities between them (Eze, 1982).

Examination malpractice is a major challenge confronting the Nigeriaeducation system on this twenty first century. Examination malpractice is any act by student invigilators, examiners, lecturers etc. that contravenes the ethics of examination and result in a dearth of credibility of any assessment. The federal ministry of education (2007) defined examination malpractices as “any act of integrity of any assessment or evaluation system.” In 1973, the gravity of irregularities at public examination caused member countries of the west African examination council much concern to extent that the then federal military government had to promulgate a decree spelling out penalties for unethical behaviours at the then West African school certificate examination. For instance, unethical behaviour such as illegal use of live question paper and impersonation were punishable by fine of N 2,000,00 or five years imprisonment or both, (Nwana, 1982).

In 1984, the Federal Government of Nigeria enacted the famous decree 20-miscellaneous offences, which stipulates a 21 years imprisonment without any option of fine for anyone caught in any form of examination malpractice. In such attendant punishments one should expect to have an end to examination leakages but unfortunately it is to no avail. Examination malpractice permeates both internal and public examination. There have been known cases of school teachers set question for their student favorites before the actual examination are conducted. There are cases of dons passing female undergraduates because of some extra academic activities between them (Eze, 1982).

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