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THE ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA

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ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN THE FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Nigeria have witness the development of ICTs in various sectors over the last decade including education. The growing trend in the use of ICT has created a great deal of knowledge about how ICTs are being used in developed countries with Nigeria inclusive, there is not much information on the attitude of teachers to the application of information and communication technology especially in the secondary schools. Looking at the developing countries according to Hawkins (2004), there is generally limited access time per month using ICTs by both the teachers and students, and even less time spent with reliable Internet access. It should be noted that the attitude of teachers and students to the application of information and communication technology differs significantly. Despite this, the new and emerging technologies challenges the traditional process of teaching and learning, and the way education is managed. While information communication technology is an important area of study in its own right, it is having a major impact across all curriculum areas. Easy worldwide communication provides instant access to vast array of data, challenging assimilation and assessment skills (Fowowe, 2006). Rapid communication plus increased access to ICTs in the home, at work, and in educational establishment, could mean that learning becomes a truly lifelong activity- an activity in which the pace of technological change forces constant evaluation of teaching process itself.

Information communication technology covers computer and other equipment created to enhance acquisition, storage and dissemination of information materials. Most of these equipments were initially confine to the vicinity of offices. Libraries in the course of time embraced the use of these equipments to carry out their day-to-day activities as usage was adapted to carry out some routine activities. It functions does not end there. The current issue is the current application of ICTs in the classroom by the teachers. This includes specifically the use of computers, Internet, telephone, digital camera, data projector, etc. As the world continues to revolve around technology, teachers need to continue incorporating these new technologies into their teaching.

Information communication technologies (ICTs) are information handling tools that are used to produce, store, and process, distribute and exchange information. These different tools are now able to work together, and combine to form networked world- which reaches into every corner of the globe (UNDP Evaluation Office, 2001). It is an increasingly powerful tool for participating in global markets, promoting political accountability; improving the delivery of basic services; and enhancing local development opportunities (UNDP, 2006). To Ogunsola (2005) ICT “is an electronic based system of information transmission, reception, processing and retrieval, which has drastically changed the way we think, the way we live and the environment in which we live”. It can be used to access global knowledge and communication with other people (Ogunsola, 2005). Students who learn with ICTs gain deeper understanding of complex topics and concepts and are more likely to recall information and use it to solve problems outside the classroom (Apple Computer, 2002). In addition, through ICT, students extend and deepen their knowledge, investigation, and inquiry according to their needs and interest when access to information is available on multiple levels (CEO Forum on Education and Technology, 2001).

Technologies available in classrooms today ranges from simple tool-based applications (such as word processors), to online repositories of scientific data. Others are primary historical documents, handheld computers, closed-circuit television channels, and two-way distance learning classrooms. Prensky (2005) asserts that even the cell phones that many now carry with them can be used to learn. According to Lei and Zhao (2006) each technology is likely to play a different role in students learning. Rather than trying to describe the impact of all technologies as if they were the same, researchers need to think about what kind of technologies are being used in the classroom and for what purposes. These usability guide the teachers attitude to the application of these equipments. Students can learn from computers where technology are used essentially as tutors and serve to increase student’s basic skills and knowledge. Moreover, they can learn with computers where technology is used as tool that can be applied to a variety of goals in the learning process and can serve as a resource to help develop higher order thinking, creativity and research skills (Ringstaff and Kelley, 2002).

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It is observed that some studies have been conducted on uses of ICTs by teachers particularly on the issue of their professional development. There has not been any study on the attitude of the teachers to the use and application of ICT where there are resources and material to maintain them in Nigeria. However, the application of ICTs by teachers in Nigeria is just beginning to gain popularity and researches in the area have just started emerging. Emphatically, the application of ICTs by teachers to teach the students is highly advantageous. This is because its enable them to demonstrate understanding of the opportunities and implications of the uses for learning and teaching in the curriculum context; plan, implement, and manage learning and teaching in open and flexible learning environment (UNESCO, 2004). In the light of these therefore, more research is needed to assess the attitude towards application of information and communication technology in teaching junior secondary school students.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

To examine the teachers attitude towards application of information and communication technology in teaching junior secondary school students To examine the availability of information and communication technology equipment in Junior secondary schools in Nigeria. To examine the advantages of the use of information and communication technology in teaching junior secondary school students.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What is the teachers attitude towards application of information and communication technology in teaching junior secondary school students? What is the availability of information and communication technology equipment in Junior secondary schools in Nigeria? What are the advantages of the use of information and communication technology in teaching junior secondary school students?

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

HO: Teacher do not have positive attitude towards the application of information and communication technology in teaching junior secondary school students.

HA: Teacher do have positive attitude towards the application of information and communication technology in teaching junior secondary school students.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

The results from this study will educate the education administrators and the general public on the teachers attitude towards application of information and communication technology in junior secondary schools in Nigeria with the view of ascertaining factors that bring about positive attitudes from teachers in the application of ICT. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to all junior secondary schools in the federal capital territory, Abuja. The study will also cover the attitude of teachers towards the application of ICTs in teaching the junior secondary school students.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

 Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work

REFERENCES

Apple Computer, (2002).The impact of technology on students’ achievement. Available at: http://www.aple.com/education/research/index2.html Accessed on 10/11/2005 Bank Institute

CEO Forum on Education Technology (2001). School technology and readiness report: Key building blocks for student achievement in the 21st century: integrating digital content. Washington, DC: Author

Fowowe, S.S. (2006).Information technology: A veritable tools for sustaining the Universal Basic Education Programme in Africa. Paper presented at the African conference on Achieving Universal Basic/Primary Education in Africa in 2015. University of Botswana. 16- 19 October.

Hawkins, R.J. (2004). Ten lessons for ICT and Education in the Developing World

Ogunsola, L.A. (2005). Information communication technologies and the effects of globalization: Twenty-first century “digital slavery” for developing countries- Myth or Reality? Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship 6 (1- 2) 1-10.

Pensky, M. (2005). What can you learn a cell phone? Almost anything! Innovative: Journal of Online Education, 1 (5).

Ringstaff, C., & Kelley, L. (2002). The learning return on our educational technology investment. WestEd

U.N.D.P. Evaluation Office. (2001).Information communication technology for development, No 5, pp 1- 31

UNDP. (2006). Information communication technologies and development. Available at: http://usdnhq.undp.prg/it4dev/ {Accessed 06 July 2006}.

UNESCO, (2004). ICT pedagogy. UNESCO office

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