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Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  504 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000







Secondary education can be defined as the transition between the primary education and tertiary education. It aims at preparing children for useful living in the society and at the same time prepares them for higher education. The national policy on education (1981) divides the secondary school into junior secondary (JSS) and senior secondary school (SSS) each stage is for a period of three years. The three years in junior secondary school is like the primary education, which is both prevocational and academic. The curriculum of the senior secondary school on the other hand is diversified. According to Ehiametaler E. T et al (1989) students at this level are streamed into science inclined, art inclined, commercial subjects oriented teacher, training inclined and technical subjects oriented.

        But in spite of the many career opportunities open to students in the senior secondary school programme, students are dropping out especially in Evboesi areas of Edo State. Secondary schools are being closed for low environment. Statistics on student’s environment in the post primary schools in the defunct Bendel state as a wholly available at the ministry of education shows that the population of students in the senior secondary school is on the decline. Another evidence of decline in senior secondary school environment in the recent method adopted by the West Africa examination council (WAEC) where by schools with many students for the senior school certificate examinations are grouped together to form a single centre. Many students who had sought admission into the senior secondary school had prematurely withdrawn and dropped out before graduation for one or two reasons. This is caused for concern of interests are some of the factors responsible for this untimely withdrawal.

        In the first place, the current economic lesson in the country has left many graduates but from secondary school and institutions of higher learning unemployed. According to Gerald Bernbanu (1979) the disappointed people who had earlier looked to educational expansion both to reduce social and economic inequalities and to improve the performance of the economy going to school was still regarded as the surest way to gainfully employ especially in the public sector. The non-employment of most of the graduates for all levels of our educational institutions makes the current students in the senior secondary school to see attending school as a waste of time. The point that is being emphasized here is that because school leavers and graduates of higher institutions do not richly secure gainfully employed in the public or private sectors of the economy as the case, many years ago students are no longer motivated to continue their education through the senior secondary school (SSS).     

        Government also contributes to the rate of dropout from secondary school in charging tuition fees, which many parents cannot afford in view of the present economic crisis the country. Even when many of them have struggled to pay the tuition fees, final accommodation fees are often unaffordable. Another factors which make students to withdraw from the senior secondary school is early marriage. It has been postulated that many girls dropped out of school because their parents wanted them to get married some other girls had dropped out of school because they had unexpected pregnancies which had forced them into early marriage. Some students who had originally enrolled into the senior secondary class had dropped out due to change in career goals. Some have taken up such careers like carpentry, tailoring, hairdressing and other types of vocational training. Parent’s attitudes level of education, family size and socio-economic status contributes to the rate of dropout from the senior secondary school. According to Oraemesi J. L (1987) parents no longer encourage their children to pursue secondary education, one argument for this is the education these days do not yield economic benefits whereas investing the same number of years and fund which have been budgeted for education in trade or business will yield greater profit.

        A good number of students withdraw from senior secondary school due to poor socio-economic status of their parents. The serious economic crisis in the country has impoverished many homes and as a result they are unable to afford school fees, uniforms, books for their children. These and many other attendant problem facing students and parents have made them disillusioned by what formal education can give them hence the dropping of the senior secondary school.  


Dropout from the senior secondary is an aspect of educational wastage and should be treated as a problem facing secondary school in particular and education in general.

As been established in the previous section of this chapter, senior secondary school classes are empty due to the rate of dropout from school.

It has also been established in the background to the problem that institutional administrators, educational planners, policy makers both at state and national levels, students and guidance and counselors have reacted out differently, times to the rate at which secondary school in the rural areas especially are becoming depopulated.

But the problem of interest – this study is to determine the relationship between the rate of dropout from the senior secondary schools in Orhionmwon Local Government Area of Edo state and the factor is as follow:-

Graduate unemployment, early marriage, unexpected pregnancy, financial difficulties, change in career goals, parent’s attitude, educational levels, socio-economic status and family size.

The study is also interested in determining what other factor might be related to the rate of dropout.


The following research questions are devised to guide the following investigator:

1.           Does the current trend of graduate unemployment contribute to the rate of dropout from school?

2.           Are early marriage and unexpected pregnancy factors in the dropout from the senior secondary school?

3.           What is the relationship between financial difficulties and dropout from senior secondary school?

4.           Do students dropout from senior secondary school due to change in career goals.

5.           Do parent’s attitudes and levels of education affect dropout from senior secondary school?

6.           Do socio-economic status and family size of parents contribute to the rate of drop outs from senior secondary school?

7.           What other factors contribute to dropouts from senior secondary school?


Major asumpti0ons made in this study were:

1.           The absence of employment prospect for school leavers and graduate of higher institution make students to dropout from senior secondary school.

2.           To both parents and students the making purpose of education is to secure gainful employment either in government service or private sector.

3.           Early marriage and unexpected pregnancy make students to dropout from senior secondary school.

4.           Student’s dropout from senior secondary school because of financial difficulties.

5.           Change in career goals makes students to dropout from senior secondary school.

6.           Children from poor homes are prone to dropout from school.


The purpose of this study was to determine the main factor responsible for the rate of dropout from school in Orhionmwon local government.

The study examined the effect of factors such as graduate unemployment, early marriage, unexpected pregnancy, student’s financial difficulties and educational levels, socio-economics status and family size on the rate of drop out from school.

It further sought to ascertain other relevant problems relating to the rate of dropout from school.


Dropout often entails unproductive expenditure. They suggest that society has neglected its responsibility of equal educational opportunity to its citizens. Therefore this study is undertaken in a strong belief that would make meaningful contributions to how government administrators, and parents can find lasting solutions to the problems of children retention in schools generally and especially in the senior secondary school.

The study would reveal the impact of unemployment on children attendance and completion of school. The recommendations that may be given would be important to our government policy makers at the federal, state and local state levels.

Finally, guidance and counsellor would find the finding of this study useful. They could use tem to detect and prevent such symptoms that are likely to head dropping out in the selected school subjects.


The study is delimited to Orhionmwon Local Government Area. Ten of the different secondary schools were used. One hundred identified dropouts from five towns in the local government area were used.

The sample drawn from the population is not fully a representation of the whole senior secondary school dropout in the area. As a result the extent generalization could be made fro the study is limited.

However, it is believed that the sample is not altogether inadequate as subjects are drawn from towns in the local government were dropout can be identified.


Drop out: For the purpose of this study, the term ‘dropout’ means students who had originally planned to obtain the senior school certificate {S.S.C} but who had left school before graduation. The term includes all these who withdrawn from other trades.

Senior Secondary School {S.S.S}: This reflects to classes 1 to 3 after junior secondary school leavers and graduates of higher institutions.

Large family size: This refers to a polygamous family. It also refers to a family with more than four children.

Unexpected pregnancy: This refers to teenage pregnancy which occurs when the teenager has not married and she is still in the school system.

Junior secondary school {J.S.S}: This is the first tier of all secondary school. It is for the period of three years.


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