1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Learning is an activity that starts at birth and can be expected to continue for a lifetime in classrooms and training centres, effective learning takes place in a well organized way. Facilities and personnel are employed to provide and education designed for classroom learning, which aims to prepare all the students to work and participate in the society which the live. Video as a media in education comes as the invention of educational technology. They are termed as instructional video. They are created for use in classrooms or in other educational settings. They are usually evaluated for language use, conflict and length and many of them are packaged as multimedia resources that include students’ workbooks, teacher’s guides, video transcripts and audio tapes. Agommuoh and Nzewi. (2003) reported that video-taped instruction has the qualities of providing a semi-permanent, complete and audio’s visual record of event.
Erickson (1995),Barford and Weston (1997), Chambers (1997) and Osokoya (2007), highlight both at school and college level the advantages of video tape instructional strategy over the traditional method. Empirical studies in Nigeria involving video-taped instructional strategy have been limited to the teaching and learning in primary school. (Salawu 1999,Aiyelagbe, 1998, Ajeyi-Dopemu 1985, Aremu 1992, Ibode, 2004).This study attempt to determine the effect of video-tape instructional strategy on the academic performance of secondary school students. Literature has also established that video-taped instruction has greatly improved the performance of students with special needs and slow learning abilities (Okwo, 1994, Mitchell, 1994, Aremu, 1992). If this is possible then it should produce better results in students with normal learning abilities which are the target of this study. Educational technologists are of the view that video-taped instruction strategy has high potential in the teaching and learning situation to enhance academic performance of students (Kozima 1991, Abimbade 1997, Abubakar 2001). Curzon (1991)affirmed that video-taped instruction like some other audio-visual aids can multiply and widen the channels of communication between the teacher and the students thereby improving students academic performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Classroom teachers employ a number of strategies when working with students in the traditional classroom, for example the instructor, watching facial expressions and body language, can determine who is bored, tired, disinterested, confused or thinking through an idea (Willis, 1993.) The effective teacher constantly monitors these cues and makes adjustments or stores the information for later use. Agommuoh and Nzewi (2003) reported that videotaped instruction has the qualities of providing a semi-permanent, complete and audiovisual record of events.They also claimed that it is a method that has the potentials of increasing the probability that students will learn more, retain better and thus improve performance. Adams (1990) is of the opinion that videotaped instruction is one of the most influential of all the media for teaching as a result of its power of both sight and sound. In his own contribution, Erickson(1965) asserts that videotaped instruction reduces abstractions as well as boredom among students in the classroom. In the same vein, Barford and Weston (1997) reiterated that the benefits of colour, sound and motion attached to videotaped package will be of interest to students who are the target of the study. This view is in agreement with Chambers (1997)when he asserts that fun and entertainment are natural ways through which students learn and this could be provided by videotaped instructional strategies. However, this study is examining the effects of video-taped instructional strategy on the academic performance of secondary school students.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
1. To examine the effects of video-taped instructional strategy on the academic performance of secondary school students.
2. To examine the benefits of video-taped instructional strategy.
3. To identify the factors limiting the use of video-taped instructional strategy.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the effects of video-taped instructional strategy on the academic performance of secondary school students?
2. What are the benefits of video-taped instructional strategy?
3. What are the factors limiting the use of video-taped instructional strategy?
HO: There is no significant relationship between video-taped instructional strategy and academic performance of secondary school students.
HA: There is significant relationship between video-taped instructional strategy and academic performance of secondary school students.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
1. The findings from this study will educate stakeholders in the education sector on the benefits of video-taped instructional strategies and its effect on the academic performance of secondary school students.
2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study on the effects of video-taped instructional strategy on the academic performance of secondary school students will cover the selected secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria.
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Abimbade A, (1997) Principles and Practice of Educational Technology. Ibadan, IbadanInternational Publishers Ltd. Abubakar, M.M. (2001). The Impact of Information Technology on the Biological Science.Journal of Science Education 5 (1&2) p. 16-20:
Akinpelu, B. (1993). Relativeeffectiveness of Instructional Videotapes and Field tripe on the Teaching andLearning of Second Nigeria Language.Ghana Educational Media and TechnologyAssociation Journal 1. (1) p. 19-25
Adams D. (1990) Connecting Video segments to collaborative learning Activities.Educational media International 1 (27) 158-163.
Agommuoh, P.C. and Nzewi, U.M (2003).Effects of video-taped instruction on secondary school students’ achievement in physics. Journal of science Teachers Association of Nigeria 88-93
Aiyelaagbe, G.O. (1998). The Effectiveness of Audio, Visual and Audio-visual self-Learning packages on Adult Learning Outcomes in Basic Literacy Skills in Ibadan Unpublished Ph.D thesis University of Ibadan.
Ajeyi-Dopemu, Y. (1985). The video-taped Recorder in Education.Journal of the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria. 20 (1)
Aremu, S.A. (1992) The need, usefulness and effectiveness of instructional materials formeaningful teaching and learning. Journal of Studies in Curriculum. 3 (1&2) Lagos:Academic Publications. Associations of Nigeria.
Aremu, S.A. (1992). The need, usefulness and effectiveness of instructional materials for meaningful teaching and learning.Journal of studies in Curriculum. 3 (1&2) Lagos: Academic publications Associations of Nigeria.
Barford, J. and West, C. (1997).The use of video as a teaching resource in a new university. British journal of Educational Technology 28(1)
Chambers, P. (1997).Using Interactive Video with special Education Needs. British Journal of Education Technology 28 (1) 31-39
Curzon, L.B. (1990) Teaching in further education. London: Cassell Educational Ltd.
Erickson, C. (1965). “Fundamentals of Teaching with Audio-Visual Technology” New York Books Company.
Ibode, F. (2004).Education Technology in the service of the secondary school teachers.In Ayodele S.O (Editor) Strategies for Nigerian secondary schools.
Kozima, R. (1991) Learning with media. Review of Educational Research 61 (2) 179-211
Mitchell, N.L. and Surprise, S.J. (1994) Effective use of Video in interactive modules.Proceedings on World Conference on Educational multi-media an hypermedia,Vancower, Canada 25-30.
Okwo, F.A (1994). Appropriate media technique for rural development communication and education in Nigeria. Journal of Quality Education 1 (1) 36-45.
Osokoya, I.O. (2006). A path-analytic study of teacher quality variables as determinants of achievement in secondary school history. Journal of business, management and training Vol. 7
Salawu, I.O (1999). Effects of three International modes on students-teacher learning skills.Unpublished Ph.d thesis, University of Ibadan.
Willis, B. (1993). Distance Education: A Particle Guide. Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs: New Jersey
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