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DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN AND ITS EFFECT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF EDO STATE

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DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN AND ITS EFFECT ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF EDO STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the study

Ganley (1989) states that domestic violence includes: physical violence, sexual violence, emotional abuse and abuse of property and pets. According to him, exposure to these forms of violence has considerable potential to be perceived as a threat to the lives of victims and can make them feel vulnerable, helpless and, in extreme cases, horrified. Dutton (1992) defines physical violence as any behavior that involves the intentional use of force against the body of another person and that may cause physical injury, injury and / or pain. This includes pushing, hitting, slapping, suffocating, using an object to hit, twisting a part of the body, forcing the ingestion of an unwanted substance and using a weapon. Dutton (1994) defines sexual abuse as any unwanted sexual intimacy imposed on an individual by another.

This may include oral stimulation or anal or vaginal penetration, forced nudity, forced exposure to material or explicit sexual activity. Compliance can be achieved by actual physical force or threat or other forms of coercion. Psychological abuse 2 may include derogatory statements or the threat of loss of life by another person. It can also involve isolation, economic threats and emotional abuse. Straus and Gelles (1990), domestic violence is widespread and affects all social and economic groups. A national survey of more than 6,000 American families found that between 53% and 70% of violent men also abuse their children. Domestic violence is one of the least reported crimes in the United States, and the Department of Justice estimated in 1998 that there were between 960000 and four million domestic incidents each year.

In 1994, statistics from the justice office estimated that around 92% of domestic violence cases involved women. Wopadovi (women against domestic violence) 2014, domestic violence threatens many Nigerian families and, unfortunately, increases in our society. Many people, including the vast majority of women, have been injured, disabled and killed as a result of domestic violence. After recent events in which domestic violence has become commonplace and every day the death of spouses and lovers of domestic violence is reported, it has become a high priority to make domestic violence a threat that must be addressed. Face as soon as possible. All the seriousness that you deserve. Wopadovi also points out that domestic violence does not recognize the standards of class or social education. Domestic violence according to Wikipedia (2004) is a problem as in many parts of Africa. In Nigeria, there is a deep cultural belief that it is socially acceptable to beat a woman to discipline her spouse.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Although domestic violence has been recognized today as one of the most entrenched and widespread forms of violence in Nigeria, its influence on schoolchildren has not yet received the same level of attention (Tony, 2002). Child victims or witnesses of domestic violence may develop physical, psychological and behavioral problems as a result of physical, verbal, psychological and other forms of violence. This can affect their participation in school because they can go to school when they are too afraid to learn and many of them may fall behind in class or in life because of exposure to domestic violence (Wathen, 2003). The short- and long-term emotional and physical sequelae of domestic violence can affect school attendance, student achievement, and behavioral patterns of students in school and participation in the classroom. It is not known how the types and extent of domestic violence affect student achievement and school participation.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study seeks to find out the negative effects of domestic violence to performances of public high school in Oredo L.G.A., Edo state.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are:

1.      To determine how domestic violence contributes to violence among public secondary school students in schools in Edo state.

2.      To establish the relationship between domestic violence and truancy among public secondary school students in Edo state.

3.      To assess to what extent domestic violence affects concentration among public secondary school students in Edo state.

4.      To determine how domestic violence leads to school drop outs among public secondary school students in Edo state.

1.5 Research Questions

1.      How does domestic violence contribute to violence in schools among public secondary schools in Edo state?

2.      What is the relationship between domestic violence and truancy among public secondary schools in Edo state?

3.      How does domestic violence contribute to lack of concentration among public secondary schools in Edo state?

4.      How does domestic violence contribute to school drop outs among public secondary schools in Edo state?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study seeks to help publicize domestic violence as a real problem which needs attention and which needs to be addressed. It will be beneficial to teachers who will better know how to identify students affected by domestic violence and get better ways of handling them. It will also be beneficial to parents who will know how to handle and treat their children. To the government to better address domestic violence as an issue affecting performance in schools.

1.7 Delimitation of the Study

The study is a success because the researcher has prepared adequately in terms of having enough funds to carry out the study, permission from the relevant authorities and enough time to carry out the study. The study has been done on public secondary schools in Oredo L.G.A., Edo state.

1.8 The Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered the following challenges

1.      The researcher feared that most people may not give clear information due to illiteracy, to address this issue the researcher interpreted the respondents the contents in the questionnaire.

2.      Suspicions-some of the respondents might suspect that the researcher has a hidden  agenda due to the insecurity in the area. The respondents would hesitate in answering questions and thus give incorrect answers. The researcher assured the respondents of confidentiality of information given by respondents.

3.      Time factor .due to the limited time given, the researcher had to adopt a busy schedule to include working on weekends to meet the deadline

4.      Lack of finances the researcher had to use large amounts of money when collecting data and administering questionnaires.

1.9 Basic Assumptions of the Study

The study was based on the following assumption: 

•      That the sample that is two public secondary schools represented the population of public schools in Oredo L.G.A.

•      That the instruments that the researcher used measured the desired constructs and the respondents would answer all questions truthfully and correctly.

•      That the findings would benefit schools and the community at large in handling issues related to domestic violence.

1.10 Definition of Terms

Community- a group of people who live in the same geographical area and share the same interests

Child- Any human below the age of 18 years according to the Kenyan constitution

Domestic- Home or family

Domestic violence- is a fight between members of the same family

Eradicate- To get rid of something bad completely

Language barrier- Challenges of communication due to lack of common language

Mobilize- Bringing people or things together

Population- The number of people in a certain group or community

Sensitize- Create awareness among people

Violence- A fight between two people or groups

Suspicion- A feeling of distrust to something or someone.

Psychological abuse- form of emotional abuse characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behavior that may result in trauma.

Sexual abuse- also referred to as molestation. forcing undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another

1.11 Organization of the Study

The study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one consists of introduction which entails background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, basic assumptions of the study, definition of significant terms used in the study and organization of the study. Chapter two contains reviewed related literature and conceptual framework while chapter three contains research methodology under research design, target population, sample size and sampling procedure, data collection instrument, data collection procedure and data analysis. Chapter four presents data analysis, presentations and interpretations while chapter five contains summary of findings, discussions, conclusions and recommendations and suggestions for further research.

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