THE IMPACT OF STAFF APPRAISAL ON PERSONNEL PERFORMANCE
Personal department is one of the challenging forces in our organization today. The function of the department include employment of staff, wages and salaries administration, health and safety of staff, staff appraisal and other personal functions. We are emphasizing on staff appraisal and about the strong effect it has on a personnel performance. Staff appraisal is the undiluted procedure whereby every organization takes stock of its human resource with regards to its present performance; the likes and dislikes of each individual, his or her strengths and failures. Staff appraisal has its objectives that has to be achieved, its limitations that can affect the study, scope of the study and relevance of the study, which will be discussed in the topic. This study makes personnel department an inevitable department in an organization because it sees to the welfare of the employees by ensuring that they are fairly and equitably compensated, which include employee classification, rate determination and also by correcting the attitude of subordinates who have violated rules and regulations. It also sees to the welfare of the organization by ensuring that competent personnel fill all positions in order to maintain a stable labour force and good performance.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
An organization with a good regulation in business and holds customer’s satisfaction at heart must have department in order to ensure progressiveness and continuity of the business. There are various types of department in an organization but we are emphasizing on personal department. The department is charged with the management of people for the success of any organization. The department has evolved over the years due to the realizations that the people employed in an organization are collectively a resource that should be utilized to its full extent. One of the function of a personnel department is appraising staff which is also known as staff performance appraisal, staff evaluation, merit rating etc.
The moment an employee is hired into an organization either as a secretary or C.E.O. of the organization, some one begins a performance appraisal. In today’s ever competitive economy characterized by risk taking, organization must survive and the key to such survival is a revitalized human resource. Employees who do have what it takes; Skills, talents, capabilities, experience, qualification and genuine work culture and who are problem solvers are not readily available. It is necessary that organization nurture, nourish and develop its staff through performance appraisal. Performance appraisal is designed to meet the needs of the organization by providing systematic judgments to back up salary increases, transfer, demotions or terminations and to meet the needs of the individual by telling him or her how they are doing and suggesting needed changes in his or her behaviour, attitudes, skills and creativity.
A sound staff’s performance appraisal must be the major goal of every organization. In doing so, the head of department (H.O.D) or personnel department must be in consultation with the other departmental heads in order to prepare recommendations and suggestions on a wider view on performance appraisal. In recent years, performance appraisal has been attracting significance attention in the world of management. Emphasis is no longer on personality traits and abilities but more on present performance, future potentials and goals. Killen (2017) defined performance appraisal as a planned evaluation of an employee’s job performance and also the term used for a variety of techniques by which superiors, peers, subordinates and the individual i.e. employees themselves rate, rank or describe their work effectiveness.
According to Richard A. Enion, appraisal of the subordinate’s job performance is written by the Supervisor and the superior submits the written appraisal to a committee which reviews and approves, this must not be forgotten when implementing performance appraisal. Stalz (2016) writes that the process of performance appraisal follows a set of pattern like a man’s performance is periodically appraised by his superior. Willima F. Laide indicated that personnel manager is responsible for designing and overseeing the appraisal programme. The person who conducts the appraisal varies from company to company. However, direct participation by the line manager in the operation of the programme is necessary for successive progressiveness and expansion of the business. In most companies, the primary responsibility for the performance appraisal falls on the immediate superior or supervisor. The best approach is to combine the appraisal from several sources, the time period is either annually or semi – annually
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To help improve communication line between the superior and their subordinates in work environment.
2. To acknowledge high performance and motivate high performance.
3. To be able to tell the employees how well they are performing. A good appraisal system provides employees with the desired feedback and helps to guide their general environment, growth and improvement.
4. To provide the employer with the data that could be used for staff deployment to serve in greater capacity.
5. To present an excellent opportunity for both parties, the employee’s supervisor and the employee themselves, to express their opinions on job performance.
6. To point out employee’s specific needs for additional educational, training and development which will lead to their improved performance and of the overall organizational performance.
7. To guide management or organizations to take major decision on transfer, promotion, career planning and termination.
8. Performance appraisal helps to remove or adjust the waywardness of an individual in the organization.
1.3 IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
1. It brings uniformity in evaluation process so that employees with the capabilities could secure the same rating.
2. It creates an opportunity for self – appraisal and renewal.
3. Record keeping about ratings will enable management and individual argue their cases of any double talk or sharp practices on the part of the organization.
4. Information provision for controlling and carrying out important manpower planning sub-systems like training promotion, selection, transfers, lay-off etc. This aspect could help in tackling problems emanating from instant decisions or judgment if advance information is available as a result of performance appraisal outcome.
5. It helps management or supervisors in taking decisions regarding his or her subordinates.
6. The waywardness of an individual in the oragnisation could be contained or removed by helping him or her through performance appraisal to adjust or shoved out.
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1. There is a serious misconception that managers and other participant charged with the conduct of performance appraisal have already mastered the skills required in the process. This can be misleading as many evaluators have been found to lack skills, training and ability to handle performance appraisal procedures and techniques effectively.
2. Many of the performance appraisal methods lack objectivity. To emphasize objectivity, employee appraisal must reflect job related factors more than personal characteristics.
3. Many evaluators could possibly have biased feelings against certain employees about anything while some evaluators may also display partiality towards a member of certain tribe, ethnic group, religion and sex.
4. Evaluators deliberately rate employees near the average, or middle of the scale, for fear of sticking their necks out or to avoid controversy criticism over their action.
5. Many managers have been accused of “high handedness” with their employees. In this case, the rating supervisor virtually take undue advantage of the appraisal to victimize their “perceived enemies”. The prejudicial approach to appraisal usually arouses hostility, tension, suspicion and loss of faith in the appraisal.
6. The performance appraisal system is a control device designed to measure employee’s achievement based on the standard and goals set agreed upon between the employer and the employee. However, experiences have shown that in many organizations, employees have not been provided with the necessary wherewithal, the enabling resources in terms of materials, tools, equipment, money, labour they require for effective performance appraisal
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Of the numerous statement offered about staff appraisal, it is seen and discovered that they aim at improving workers talent, skills, capabilities and creativity in order for the smooth running of the organization. The more attention a manager or supervisor pays to counseling his subordinates the more time he is likely to gain in the long run as a result of the improved capabilities of his subordinates. The employee themselves realize the importance of performance. Appraisal because of the improvement of their capabilities and where they stand i.e they will know whether they will be demoted, promoted or transferred because the appraisal makes them aware of their performance in the organization. It is obtained that performance appraisal is incomplete unless the appraisee is aware of what is going on.
Staff appraisal is typically seen as the process of monitoring an employees work, behaviour, attitudes and making sure of the result which brings about the success of the organization. Monitoring an employee involves focusing on the entire performance i.e task and behaviour during his or her stay in the organization and counseling the employee, the counseling needs to be immediate and continuous because of the good effect it has on employees.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Time constraint: This research write up was done under limited time and together with demanding academic work.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What do employees feel about staff appraisal?
2. What do managers feel about performance appraisal?
3. Are rewards misplaced in performance appraisal?
4. Are the objectives of the appraisal system very clear to all employees?
5. Does performance appraisal provides an opportunity for a discussion between the appraiser and appraisee on the expectations, achievement, failures, constraints and improvements required?
6. Does performance appraisal system provides an opportunity for a discussion i.e open communication between each appraisee – appraiser pair through performance review discussion?
7. Is performance appraisal used for other development activities like job- rotation and job enrichment.
8. Is management serious with performance appraisal.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
(i)Organisation: This is the process of arranging an organized group of people with a shared purpose.
(ii)Staff appraisal/ performance appraisal: This is the undiluted procedure whereby every organization takes stock of its human resource with regards to the present performance; the likes and dislikes of each individual, his or her strengths and failures.
(iii)Personnel department:This is the department charged with the management of people for the success of any organization.
(iv)Personnel manager: Is someone who has control over others in order to get work done.
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