MOTIVATION AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR IMPROVING EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The basis of any economy in terms of its sustainability depends on its productivity. The issue of low productivity has been of great concern to all tiers of government. Government institutions and agencies are constantly being run at a loss due to low productivity. A number of reasons have been advanced over the years by several authors concerning low productivity of staff. Our focus in this study is to examine the concept of motivation as an instrument employed by organizations to either increase or decrease productivity depending on how it is deployed, using the Federal Civil Service, especially, those working at the National Assembly. Of all the resources of production, people (workers) are the most important because they are needed to activate the other resources. Put differently, people and not money are responsible for growth and development in any organization. Workers are the main instrument for the attainment of the objectives of the organization, hence great care and attention should be taken to motivate them with a view to improving productivity and ensure organizational success.
An unmotivated employee is a threat to the organization and by extension the society. His behaviour is characterised by frustration, corruption, regression, stupidity, stubbornness, withdrawal and unwillingness to work. The goals of then organization will be difficult to achieve if the owners or managers of such organizations do not know what motivates or propel their employees to increase productivity. The necessity of building motivating factors into organizational roles, the staffing of these roles, and the entire process of directing and leading people must be build on a knowledge of motivation. The job of an organization is not only to manipulate people but rather to recognise motivating factors in designing an environment for increase productivity.
The term motivation is derived from a latin word called ‘Movere’ which means to move. It is the process by which individuals are moved to engage in behaviour that will lead to accomplishing the goals of the organization. It makes a difference in what a person can do. Motivation refers to those into their bob. It is the energising force that propels and indices that maintains behaviour. Jones (2015) defines it as “How behaviour gets started, is energised, sustained, is directed, is topped and what kind of subjective reaction it presents in the organization while all this is going on”. It is amazing what employees will or can do if they are motivated and made valuable in the organization. The success of an organization to a very large extent is dependent on its ability to elicit extraordinary performance from people. An organization will be successful if it tries or attempts to make people feel good about themselves and others. If people feel good about themselves, they will be motivated to solve problems and they will be excited about their work, consequently, they will explore ways to getting things done without being watched and responds to situations rather than reaction. The aim of this study is to investigate from empirical studies to confirm whether workers productivity will increase if given the right dose of incentives thereby resulting in the accomplishment of the goals of the organization.
The Federal Civil Service occupies a wide area of land at the centre of which stands a concrete structure, which consists of a dome, which readily distinguishes it from the structures of the two other arms of government. This basic arrangement derives from the constitution (vide Ss 47 to 51 of the 1999 constitution). But upon this constitutional arrangement are provisions made in the standing rules of each of the houses for the other political functionaries- House Leaders, Party Leaders, Whips and Committee Chairmen. Heading the Legislative services of these houses are the clerks of the Senate and of the House of Representatives who also manage the administrative affairs of their respective houses as well as execute their houses legislative decisions. They are ultimately responsible to the clerk of the federal civil service and the presiding officers.
Each House has a Legislative Department composed of officers who carry out the legislative works of their respective houses and implement or execute their houses political decisions. For further realization of the objectives of the law making bodies of both houses, there are other established number of departments which provides specialised services. These departments generally known as the Common Services Departments include; Administrative/Personnel Management Department; Finance and Supplies Department, Legislative Budget and Planning Department, Library, Research and Computer Services Department. The seven departments complement the two legislative departments. Senate and the House of Representatives.
In addition to this mine department are four other principal units- the National Secretariat of Nigerian Legislatures; the Medical services Units; the Internal Audit Units; and the Sergeant At-Arms Units, all under the direct supervision and control of the clerk to the Federal Civil Service. It has been said that for a legislature to be able to perform satisfactorily its traditional roles that is being functional, accountable, independent and representative; other support service are sine quanon. Principal among these providers of services to enable members perform their tasks are the parliament staff headed by the clerk of the legislature. He coordinates the legislative functions of both houses; he is the Chief Administrative and Accounting Officer. As the chief administrative officer of the Civil Service, both houses has advises the two presiding officers of the houses on matters of purely administrative nature in respect of each house or both houses. He also consults with the presiding officers as and when it is necessary to do so. He is accessible to all members of both houses on any legislative or administrative matters.
Assisting him in all these duties including some specific duties of delegated nature is the Deputy Clerk to the Federal Civil Service. The Clerks of the Senate and of the House of Representatives perform legislative functions as heads of the Legislative Departments of their respective Houses and report back to the Clerk of the National Assembly, as occasion warrants. The two Clerks are also the delegates in regards to administering the affairs of their respective houses. Under them are the other legislative staffs from the Deputy Clerks of the Senate and House of Representatives, down the line. They serve the chambers as clerks. The common service departments which have been earlier mentioned, perform many services as their titles implies i.e administrative, financial, planning and research, and legal, to aid members individually and collectively towards easing their jobs of law making. It is the above categories of staff that this research works will centered on federal legislature’s public services.See appendix 1.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Nigeria is reputed to be one of the poorest nations in the world not by measuring of its human and natural resources of which she is abundantly and naturally endowed with, but by the living standard of the people whose per capital income is very low, leading to low productivity and inefficiency. For Nigeria to occupy her place in the community of nations as, conscious and deliberate efforts must be made to elicit workers cooperation by motivating them to increase productivity. An unmotivated employee as earlier said is a threat to the organization and by extension the society. His productivity diminishes, effectiveness and efficiency deteriorates, low morals results and uncommitted approach to work becomes a basic characteristic of the workers. The picture painted or describe above is not different in the federal civil service, which this study seeks to investigate.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study is designed to achieve the following purposes;
i. To determine the extent of motivation of the employees of the federal civil service
ii. To examine a relationship between performance and motivation of employees
iii. To establish the concepts of motivation in the organization to identify basic principles of motivation
iv. To identify basic principles of motivation
v. To identify motivation theories that could be applicable/useful to any case study.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
One of the major problems confronting organizations is that of motivating workers to perform assigned task to meet or surpass predetermined standards. If an organization must achieve its goals, its managers must pay serious attention to its workforce. Management task amongst others should include findings out what motivates people in terms of monetary incentives or man financial incentives.
The Nigeria legislatures are grossly ill equipped due to the constant incursion of the military into politics, required for the smooth performance of legislative duties. Staff welfare is equally nothing to write home about. The consequences of the above is the low productivity. Since the legislature is the symbol of democracy effort should be made to elicit the support of legislative staff to enhance their productivity performance of our legislatures and strengthening the nations democracy. The study is intended to contribute to knowledge on the issue of motivation of employees and it is a necessary requirement for the award of the Polytechnic Diploma in Public Administration.
To guide this study, the following research questions are advanced viz:
i. Does motivation leads to workers productivity?
ii. Does workers performance depends on the extent to which they are motivated?
iii. Are employees of the Federal Civil Service adequately motivated?
iv. Is there any connection between high productivity and motivation?
v. Is there any connection between high productivity and human relations or leadership style?
1.6 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF STUDY
This study is limited to the Federal Civil Service. The selection of the Federal Civil Service is purely purposive. The most important factor that influence the researchers choice of this arm of government if direct access to vital information. The researcher happens to be an employee of the organization. Furthermore, employees below managerial level were chosen for the study, for a number of reasons. Firstly, employees below managerial level constitute the most populous part of the organizations workforce and hence are directly involved in the day to day operations of the organization. In addition, they are also the group that complains most about inadequate incentives to perform their assigned task. Financial and time constraint limited the scope of the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. Motivation:- This is used in this study to refer to the process or influencing, inducing, or stimulating a person to take action that will accomplish desired goals. It is that energising force that induces or compels and maintain behaviour. Put differently, it is a process which involves making people to perform an activity with enthusiasm and effectiveness in order to achieve organization objectives.
ii. Motivator:- A motivator is something that influences an individual behaviour. It makes a difference in what a person can do.
iii. Tool: It refers to anything that help a person to do one’s own job. Research tools like questionnaires=motivational tools like monetary rewards, non financial incentives and negative rewards.
iv. Productivity: the term devotes the measures of production efficiency i.e the ratio between output and input. It is the criteria for enterprise competitiveness and long term strategy for governments, employers and employees to alleviate poverty and promote human rights and economic democracy.
v. Employees: this is used here to refer to workers below the cadre of management grade who participate in one way or the other in the accomplishment of goals set by the organization.
vi. Legislature: Legislature refers to a body of persons with the power to make and change laws, or a legislature could be refers to as a body of persons in a particular country or state vested with powers to make and enforce laws. They may consist of one or two chambers with similar or different powers.
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