Select Currency
Translate this page

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM FROZEN FOODS

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  635 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM FROZEN FOODS

 

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted to determine the presence of Salmonella species in Frozen Foods in Owerri in August, 2000. A total of 30 Food samples were collected from the different market in ten different locations in Owerri and examined for the presence of Salmonella. After the culturing and biochemical tests, three different Salmonella species were isolated and they include: Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella paratyphi A. out of the 30 Foodsamples examined, Salmonella were found in 20 (66.67%). Out of the total samples examined, Salmonella typhi were isolated with the prevalence rate of 12 (40%) from 30 samples, Salmonella paratyphi A were isolated with the prevalence rate of 5 (16.67%), and Salmonella typhimurium were isolated with the prevalence rate of 3 (10%).

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Illnesses from food are one of the most important economic and health problems among industrial and non-industrial countries. In recent years, Salmonella has been one of the most common causes of food born disease Salmonellosis is an infectious disease which often occurs through contaminated food, especially food products with an animal origin such as meat, chicken, egg, animal foods and sometimes vegetables in the food chain. In developing countries, estimation of Salmonelosis is difficult because there has not been sufficient surveillance. Therefore, globally, many studies have been performed reporting that the prevalence and kind of salmonella serotypes are different based on geographical regions. Salmonella entericaserovarsEnteritidis and Typhimurium were reported to be the two most frequent serotypes of Salmonella isolated in Iran and other countries. During the two past decades, the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella has become a serious problem worldwide. Wide usage of antibiotics in the diet of domestic animals has made drug resistant bacteria which could betransfered to human beings. Also, in recent years, problem of resistant strains to multiple drugs (MDR) is increasing and most studies in Iran and other countries have shown high resistance of Salmonella strains to several antibioticsIt belongs to the family Emtero-bacteriaceae and it is a facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacillus that parasitizes the intestine of a large number of vertebrate species. It also infects man leading to enteric fever, gastroenteritis and septicemia, collectively known as Salmonellosis infection.

Of all the enterobacteriaceae, the genus salmonella is the most complex with more than 2,000 closely related bacteria that causes illness by reproducing in the digestive tract. (Aora, 2004). Each salmonella subgroup or serotype share common antigen and has its own name and the antigenic complexity of the bacteria have been described by Kauffman-White scheme. According to this scheme, the terminology that identifies the particular protein coats, or serovars, is not well settled, and what previously were thought to be various species of the genus Salmonella are now thought to be serovars of only two species by many researchers, Salmonella enterica and Samonellabongori. However, these designations are not always accepted in the scientific literature and so common serovars that have been named in the past are still used (for example, S. typhi, S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, S. cholerasuis, S. saintpaul ). The Serovars are identified by the Kauffman-White classification that uses two major types of antigens (Somatic O and flagella H) to distinguish the over 2, 500 types of samonella bacteria. Initially each Salmonella species was named according to clinical consideration, e.g. Salmonella typhi-murium (mouse typhoid fever), S. cholerae-suis  (hog cholera). After it was recognized that host specificity did not exist for many species, new strains (or serovar, short for serological variants) received species name according to the location at which the new strain was first isolated.

SerovarTyphimurium has considerable diversity and may be very old. The majority of the isolates belong to a single clonal complex. Isolates are divided into phage types, but some phage types do not have a single origin as determined using mutational changes. Phage type DT104 is heterogeneous and represented in multiple sequence types, with its multidrug-resistant variant being the most successful and causing epidemics in many parts of the world. Serovartyphi is relatively young compared to Typhimurium, and probably originated approximately 30,000-50,000 year ago. The common salmonella serotypes that are important in Animals and mammals include; Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae – is found in cold-blooded animals, poultry, mammals. Serovars of Salmonella  enterica subspecies enterica. Salmonella choleraesuis (Bacillus paratyphoid B and C). This is an intestinal commensalists in pigs; it becomes pathogenic if resistance is weak; humans can be infected by ingesting sick animals; the bacteria cause septicemic salmonellosis in swine. Salmonella enteritidis – It is found in the intestines of cattle, rodents, ducks and humans; it causes calf paratyphoid fever and acute gastroenteritis in humans. Salmonella paratyphi B, in central Europe usually human pathogen, causes paratyphoid fever. Salmonella typhi, occurs in temperate and subtropical zones. It is the human pathogen of typhoid fever; 3-5% of persons falling ill remain permanent carriers of the pathogen. Salmonella typhimurium, causes a wide range of infections in birds to severe systemic paratyphoid diseases. It causes salmonella enteritis (food poisoning) in humans. Salmonella dublin, one of the pathogens causing cattle salmonellosis. Salmonella typhisuis, one of the pathogen causing hog Salmonellosis. Salmonella brandenburg, causes abortion and enteritis in shepherd cattle.  Salmonella anatum  and  Salmonella montevideo.

Animals consume Salmonella from the soil or contaminated processed food e.g. feeds. The bacteria are then shed alive in the infected animals’ faeces. Humans on the other hand consume Salmonella through contact withUnclean food, particularly in institutional kitchens and restaurants Excretions from either sick or infected but apparently clinically healthy people and animals (especially endangered are caregivers and animals) Polluted surface Food and standing Food (such as in shower hoses or unused Food dispensers) Unhygienically thawed fowl (the melt Food contains many bacteria). An association with reptiles (Pet tortoises and snakes) primarily aquatic turtles is well described. Salmonella bacteria can survive several weeks in a dry environment and several months in Food; thus, they are frequently found in polluted Food, contamination from the excrement of carrier animals being particularly important. Aquatic vertebrates, notably birds and reptiles, are important vectors of salmonella.  Poultry, cattle, and sheep are frequently agents of contamination. Salmonella can be found in food, particularly meats and raw eggs.

Salmonella infections other than typhoid fever are termed enteric fever, salmonella food poisoning and gastroenteritis. These diseases are usually less severe than typhoid fever and are scribed to one of the many serotypes of Salmonella enteritidis. Most outbreaks of epidemics and food poisoning in humans and animals are caused by salmonella enteritidis  and  Salmonella typhimurium,  others are Salmonella Dublin, Salmonella Thompson. Non-typhodialsalmonellosis are more prevalent than typhoid fever and currently holding steady at 40,000 to 50,000 case a year. All strains are zoonotic in origin though human may be some carriers under certain circumstances by contrast. The type of salmonella that affect humans usually cause disease which can be recognized by diarrhea, vomiting. Diarrohoeal disease seems to be one of the major health hazards both for human and animals. Many salmonella grow in the gut of their host and once in the gut, salmonella wave-long filament called flagella moves about until they touch a suitable cell. The bacteria stick to the cell and are “swallowed” smaller “hairs” called fimbriae are important in stimulating immunity in the host.

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For Quick Help Chat with Us Now!

+234 814 010 7220

+233 541 351 187


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

Emmanuel Essential
Kogi state University
I actually took the risk,you know first time stuff But i was suprised i received as requested. I love you guys 🌟 🌟 🌟 🌟
Very Good
Azeez Abiodun
Moshood Abiola polytechnic
I actually googled and saw about iproject master, copied the number and contacted them through WhatsApp to ask for the availability of the material and to my luck they have it. So there was a delay with the project due to the covid19 pandemic. I was really scared before making the payment cause I’ve been scammed twice, they attended so well to me and that made me trust the process and made the payment and provided them with proof, I got my material in less than 10minutes
Very Good
Gbadamosi Solomon Oluwabunmi
Lasu
Swift delivery within 9 minutes of payment. Thank you project master
Excellent
JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on +234 814 010 7220 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: +234 814 010 7220 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: +234 814 010 7220

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!