1.1 Background to the Study
Agriculture constitutes one of the most important sectors of Nigeria’s economy. The sector is particularly important in terms of generating employment and contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and export revenue earnings. It contributes 22% to GDP, equivalent to $112.12 billion (N18,513 billion Naira at N165 per dollar) (Christie, 2014). In Nigeria, an estimated 65% of the population resides in the rural areas where agriculture is the predominant occupation (Federal Office of Statistics, 1999). It is estimated that about 70% of the rural population are engaged in agriculture (Federal Office of Statistics, 1999). For more than two decades, the agricultural sector of the Nigerian economy has continued to perform below expectation despite the huge sum of money being allocated to the sector in each year’s budget (Onyeahialam, 2002). In 2002, about N9.874 billion was mapped out for the sector (Obasanjo, 2002). Also during the same year, 72 million dollars donated by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) were distributed to the 36 States of the Federation in addition to the year’s allocation (Iheagu, 2002). According to Iheagu (2002), the money cannot be said to have been justifiably used, rather, what transpire is the prevalent poor attitude of the government to the execution of agricultural programs which is always a top-bottom approach system.
Previously, government embarked on various reform programs with a view to increase food production and processing both for home consumption and export. The reform programs introduced which among others include the: Farm Settlement Scheme established in 1960, National Accelerated Food Production Program
1972, Agricultural Development Projects 1972, Nigerian Agricultural and Co-operative Bank 1973, Operation Feed the Nation 1976, River Basin Development Authority’s 1976, Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructures 1986, National Directorate of Employment 1987, National Agricultural Land Development Authority 1988, Food Security and Poverty Alleviation Program 1999. All these programs have significant merit, but the facts remain that none singly or collectively have addressed the felt needs of the farmers to any significant and sustainable extent (Ladele, 1990; Idachaba, 2000 and Ijere, 1992).
Ijere (1988) contended that, for rural development program to succeed, one of its major concerns should be to reflect the realities, needs and aspirations of the rural people. Similarly, Olukosi (2002) indicated that, for any development project to succeed there is need to not only involve the community on development projects in bottom-up manner but, empowering them to initiate projects based on their felt needs and priorities, plan by themselves, implement by themselves with outsiders as facilitators. Participation of the rural people is thus, considered a powerful instrument for meeting this concern.
Consequently, on the forgoing situation in the country, the Federal Government of Nigeria prepared and adopted a new National Rural Development Strategy in 2001, PIM (2006). The strategy aimed at improving livelihood and food security through a process of Community Based Agriculture and Rural Development Project (CBARDP). The strategy called for a community driven development approach that ensures the active participation of beneficiaries and Local Government at all levels of decision making. The project counterpart funds were from the African Development Bank (AfDB) contributing 81%, the Federal Government of Nigeria 3%, five participating states: Kaduna, Bauchi, Adamawa, Gombe and Kwara with each contributing 6% respectively to their own state projects. Other contributors of the funds are the selected nine Local Government Areas from each State, contributing 9% each while the project sites (participants) 1%. Their intention is to assist the agricultural and rural development sector of Nigeria by funding Community Based Agriculture and Rural Development Project (CBARDP).
1.2 Problem Statement
Despite the high potential for increasing agricultural production in the country by expanding the area under cultivation and improving output for existing area, the country has failed to produce enough food for meeting her citizen’s needs (Inusa, 2011). The decline in production of food affects the whole of agricultural sector. One of the major causes of the unsatisfactory situation in the agricultural sector is the traditional system of agricultural production. This is attributed to poor production technologies used by the farmers coupled with inadequate input supply, poor access to rural infrastructure which stand as a big hindrance facing Nigeria‟s agriculture (Inusa, 2011).
A lot of money has been spent by the African Development Bank, Federal Government of Nigeria, Kaduna State and the nine participating Local Governments in the participating communities to ensure that the participants utilized resources more efficiently and have access to infrastructure in order to improve their output and income. CBARDPs project has commenced since 2006, information on the impact of this project on the participating farmers in the study area needs to be obtained. Though, CBARDP may have carried out impact assessment study of the project, there is the need for such information from an external source. It is important to look at the project implementation from the inception to date. This is because since the inception of the CBARDP project, there is little or no much study of this nature that has been conducted. Hence, the study determined the impact of the project towards participants output and also the extent to which the project contributed to improve participants’ income in Zaria and Igabi Local Government Areas of Kaduna State. This study therefore, provides answers to the following research questions:
i. What are the socio-economic characteristics of the participating farmers and non-participating farmers?
ii. What are the activities of the CBARDP project among participating farmers in the study area?
iii. What is the impact of CBARDP on the income of participating farmers and non-participating farmers?
iv. What is the output of the major crops of participants and non-participating farmers?
v. What are the spillover effects of the CBARDP on the non-participating farmers?
vi. What are the constraints encountered by the participants of the project in achieving their goals?
The broad objective of the study is to assess the impact of Community Based Agriculture and Rural Development Project (CBARDP) on the participants income and output. The specific objectives were to:
i. describe the socio-economic characteristics of the participating farmers and the non-participating farmers.
ii. describe the activities of the CBARDP among participating farmers in the study area
iii. determine the impact of CBARDP on the income of participating farmers and non- participating farmers in the study area.
iv. determine the output of the major crops of participants and non-participating farmers in the study area.
v. assess the spillover effects of CBARDP on the non-participating farmers.
vi. identify the constraints encountered by the project participants.
1.4 Justification of the Study
Successive Government in Nigeria has recognized the importance of agricultural extension services to the survival of the small-scale farmers in particular and agricultural development in general. Thus various Agricultural Development Programs have evolved with the aim of modernizing and improving the farmers’ technical knowledge and skills for greater output and higher standard of living (Adekoya, et al. 2011).
The main concern of this study is to assess the impact of the project on the output and income of the participants in the study area. This assessment will help us understand how the project has helped or improved the farmers level in terms of output and income, as well as the differences that exist between the participants and non-participants. The findings of this study will provide useful and significant information in agricultural sector. It is expected that the finding will be useful for the development of a new thesis, thus increasing available literature in agricultural research in Nigeria. Finally, the outcome of the research provides viable information for the public including Non- Governmental Organization (NGOs) wishing to sponsor program to improve the output and income of farmers.
i. There is no significant difference between the income of participating farmers and non-participating farmers in the study areas.
ii. There is no significant difference between the maize output of the participants and non-participants in the study areas.
iii. There is no significant difference between the rice output of the participants and non-participants in the study areas.
iv. There is no significant difference between the cowpea output of the participants and non-participants in the study areas.
1.6 Definition of terms
Development: Development, as a public sector term, is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region or local community are improved according to targeted goals and objectives.
Agriculture: The science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.
Community: Community can be defined as a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common.
Rural: A rural area is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
Income: This refers to money received, especially on a regular basis, for work or through investments.
Output: In simple terms, output can be seen as the amount of something produced by a person, machine, or industry.
Participant: This term is used to refer to an individual who takes part in something.
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