PROXIMATE AND FIBER ANALYSIS OF MULTI-NUTRIENT FEED BLOCK MADE WITH PINEAPPLE PULP AND DIFFERENT BROWSE PLANTS

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  377 Users found this project useful  |  Price ₦3,000

  DOWNLOAD FULL PROJECT

PROXIMATE AND FIBER ANALYSIS OF MULTI-NUTRIENT FEED BLOCK MADE WITH PINEAPPLE PULP AND DIFFERENT BROWSE PLANTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Proximate analysis helps in determination of the major constituents of feed and it is used to assess if a feed is within its normal compositional parameters or somehow being adulterated (Jegede A.V 2015). Goat as Small ruminants animal with four compartment stomach,(Rumen, Reticulum, Omasum and Abomasum) suffer from scarcity in feed supply and pasture quality in the humid region of West Africa, About 98 percent of the smallholder ruminants farmers mainly depend on naturally available forage for animal feeding which is abundant during the wet season (Pereraet al., 2007). However, the quantity and quality of these forages decline during the dry season which leads the smallholder farmers to utilize agricultural crop residues to keep the animals alive. During the dry season when the natural vegetation is of poor nutritive value (Akinfala and Tewe,2002; Aye, 2007). Browse plants with high nutritive values have been successfully fed to small ruminants in alley faming systems (Ngwa and Tawah, 2002; Fasae and Alokan, 2006). Ruminantanimal production is a very important componentof agricultural sector in Nigeria economy. The nation’s meat supply is almost exclusively derivedfromruminant livestock. The major constraint ofincreasingsmall ruminant productivity is the Improvementof ruminant animal nutrition and feed Supply(Akangbe and Adeleye, 2002).The provision of good quality forage all year round is a major problem of Small ruminant livestock production in the tropics. It is a known fact that, the availability of good quality green feedtoruminant animal is seasonal in the dry tropics. Thisexplains why most ruminant animals under extensive Systemof rearing have low productivity and poor body condition at the peak of the dry season (Rosiji and Iposu, 2002).

 

In an attempt to alleviate ruminant feed supply problems and looking for potential feed resources, particularly those which survive during the dry season call for the use of conventional feedstuffs for the production of ruminant animals. Research had shown that, these conventional sources may not be profitable due to the escalating cost of production and competition between man and livestock. In this regards, the necessity to search for cheaper and locally available alternative feed materials among nutritionists that can meet the nutritional requirements of ruminant animals arise. Such feed materials should have the advantage of cost, availability as well as possess very low human food preference to eliminate competition between man and animals. Multi-nutrient feed block are lick blocks containing urea,molasses, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients ( Hendrantoet al., 1989). Due to scarcity and cost of molasses it is replaced with pineapple pulp (Ananascomosus) so that livestock farmers in Nigeria will have easy access to it.

 

These pulps are classified as most versatile feeds that can make important addition to the amount of locally produced feeds for sheep. As feed, they are easily mixed with other feed ingredients, exert mildly laxative effect and help to alleviate the environmental impact of fruits processing. Orange and pineapple pulps are high in energy and fiber but low in protein content with imbalance between calcium and phosphorus (Rogerioet al., 2007; Fung et al., 2010). Sheep have a unique ability to convert human consumption into useful end products that are utilized for productivity and growth. This is possible because of microbial fermentation taking place in the Rumen (Aka et al., 2011).

 

The current practice among animal scientist of feeding unconventional feedstuffs (agro-industrial by-products) as alternative feedstuffs for ruminant animal production in Nigeria holds inestimable potential for the development of the sub-sector. The problem lies with harnessing, processing and utilization of these by-products (Ahamefuleet al., 2002). Pineapple pulp is an example of such agro-industrial by-product that can be utilized to a good advantage for ruminant animal nutrition in Nigeria. Pineapple pulp that is usually discarded as waste after processing, it is a rich source of energy but low in protein (Fadelet al., 2000), yet to be probably harnessed for ruminant animal production due to its bulkiness and water content. It is hoped that, the use of this pineapple pulp or in combination with forage could result in an edible material that can be used to feed small ruminant animals.

 

Several solutions have been suggested by researchers to improve the nutritional quality and palatability of low quality roughages. In this regards, combined feeding of low quality roughages with UMMB is considered to be one of the easiest and effective practices (Pereraet al., 2007; Perera and Jayasuriya, 2008). Hard solid blocks of UMMB provide readily available sources of energy and protein in the forms of molasses and urea together with fiber and minerals (Saddul and Boodoo, 2001). Urea-molasses mineral block (UMMB) licks can improve the utilization of low quality roughages because it satisfies the requirements of the rumen microorganisms and creates a better environment for the fermentation of fibrous material which eventually increases the production of microbial protein and volatile fatty acids (Wongnen, 2007). Urea, after hydrolyzing into ammonia in the rumen, provides a nitrogen source for the rumen micro-flora for their microbial protein synthesis. Molasses is a major source of readily fermentable energy, which assists the growth of rumen microorganisms. In addition, it is considered to be a good carrier for urea and a source of micro minerals (Pereraet al., 2007; Wongnen, 2007). It has been reported byPereraet al. (2007) that the incorporation of UMMB under field conditions has tremendously improved the animal performance which may be associated with the “supplementary” and “catalytic” effects of UMMB promoting an optimal ammonia level for efficient microbial activity in the rumen (Kunju, 1986).

 

Several researchers have previously reported the use of UMMB licks for supplementing the crop residue-based diets of large and small ruminants (Leng, 1983; Sansoucy, 1995), but only very few studies have been conducted on the use of UMMB with good quality forage-based diets. Results of one such study by Weerasingheet al. (2010) to evaluate the effects of supplementation of nitrogen through UMMB on the performance of dairy cows fed good quality forage based diets, highlighted that UMMB supplementation significantly increased milk yield and yields of milk fat, protein, and solids-non-fat (SNF). Further, UMMB supplemented animals in that study had a significantly higher body weight compared with those fed control diet and the authors suggested that the improvements of production and performance could be due to improved digestibility of UMMB supplemented diet. With this, multi-nutrient block have been found to be highly beneficial and its use as been shown to be practical and effective in overcoming nutritional challenges in sheep, goats and dairy cattle industry (Makkar,2007).

 

1.2       Justification

Feed block technology, as an option to be promoted among sheep, goat, and cattle owners in Nigeria. In order to improve animal performance and reduce cost of feeding animal and conserved utilization of agro-industrial by-products in the formulation of suitable feed that consist of different nutrient composition which will improve the growth performance of any animal that consumes it (Shided and Salman,1996). These studies therefore, will broadening the scope to determine different macro-nutrients present in the feed block. To know the exact substance classes that will contribute to the energy content of the animal, improved productivity and also to reduce the hazardous effect in production. Multi-nutrient feed block as a technology is also to meet the nutritional requirement of livestock animals in Nigeria.

 

1.2     Objectives of the Study

The objective of this project is to determine proximate and fiber analysis of multi-nutrient feed block made with pineapple pulp and different browse plants. Specific objectives include;

To analyze proximate content in the multi-nutrient block and browse plants.

To determine the fiber fraction present in the multi-nutrient block and browse plants.

  DOWNLOAD FULL PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent
Merry From BSU
I am now a graduate because of iprojectmaster.com, God Bless you guys for me.
Excellent
Samuel From Ajayi Crowther University
You guys just made life easier for students. Thanks alot iprojectmaster.com
Excellent
Musa From Ahmadu Bello University
Thank you iprojectmaster for saving my life, please keep it up and may God continue to bless you people.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!