RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERUM TESTOSTERONE, DIGIT RATIO AND BODY COMPOSITION AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF IGBO ETHNIC GROUP IN NIGERIA

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  283 Users found this project useful  |  Price ₦3,000

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERUM TESTOSTERONE, DIGIT RATIO AND BODY COMPOSITION AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF IGBO ETHNIC GROUP IN NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT

Digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait, with females having a higher 2D:4D than males. This digit ratio has been associated with numerous behavioural traits and health conditions related to sex hormones. Four hundred and twelve secondary school students (209 males and 203 females) aged 12 to 20 years attending secondary schools within Enugu metropolis, in Enugu state, Nigeria participated in this work after an informed consent was obtained from them and their parents. Detailed information required from subjects was obtained through a standard designed questionnaire. Body fat percentage, weight (kg), Finger length (cm), height (cm), chest, waist and hip circumferences (cm) were measured using standard protocols. Body mass index (BMI), Waist to chest ratio (WCR) and Waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Blood sample for the estimation of testosterone was also obtained. The variables were studied according to sex and age groups. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using SigmaStat 2.0 for Windows (San Rafael, CA) and statistical values were acceptable at p<0.05. Testosterone and all the anthropometric variables considered in this studyshowed statistical significant difference (p<0.001 and 0.002) between males and females. The result also indicated a negative significant relationship between 2D:4D of both hands and testosterone in males, while in females testosterone had a positive correlation with 2D:4D of the right hand and a negative correlation 2D:4D of the left hand (p<0.05). 2D:4D of both hands had a negative correlation with weight and height in females (p<0.01 and p<0.05) respectively while in males, 2D:4D did not correlate with height and weight (p>0.05). Males had a significant relationship with weight, height, body fat percentage and chest circumference (p<0.01) while in females testosterone had a significant relationship with weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist to hip ratio, chest, waist and hip circumference (p<0.05). In conclusion, the present study confirmed the existence of sexual dimorphism of finger lengths and digit ratios as well as in body composition variables. It also showed a relation between digit ratios and testosterone in the adolescent age group. These findings could be of importance in addressing biological traits and health conditions related to sex hormones.

BACKGROUND

There are very few parts of the human body in health or disease that provide observation better than the hand. The hand presents excellent opportunities for us, students of human nature and of human anatomy to exercise power of observation and to study the outward form of a portion of the body (Jones, 1942). But more to our purpose is the fact that in probing deeper into the anatomy of the hand we are immediately brought face to face with some of the most important biological problems and some of the most striking exhibitions of general vital principles. The fingers in the adult human hand differ in length and in distal extent (Jones, 1942). These finger lengths are fixed for life within the first three months of pregnancy (Manning et al., 1998;Csathoet al., 2003). Contemporary anthropological studies have found that in the clear majority of males, the distal extent of the ring finger tends to be relatively greater (using the middle finger as standard) than the index finger (Manning et al., 1998; McFadden and Shubel, 2002). However, the results for females vary considerably with some studies reporting that females show a similar pattern to that of males (Manning et al., 1998) while others suggest that the prevalence of a longer index finger is relatively or absolutely more common in females (Danborno et al.,2008a). This shows that the ratio of the index finger (2D) to that of the ring finger (4D) in humans is sexually dimorphic (Ecker, 1875; George, 1930; Phelps, 1952; Manning, 2002). This sexual dimorphic trait is also found in bonoboos (Ecker, 1875; Jones, 1942; Manning et al; 2003; Danborno et al., 2008a). Finger length ratio is historical to what went on in the womb at the time when the brain, heart and other organs were growing (Malaset al., 2005; Mclntye, 2005 and Danbornoet al., 2008b). It suggests that a relatively long ring finger is a sign that certain organs were exposed to higher levels of testosterone while a relatively long index finger points to lower level of male hormone and higher levels of oestrogen (Manning et al., 2003 and Danborno et al., 2008a).

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent
Merry From BSU
I am now a graduate because of iprojectmaster.com, God Bless you guys for me.
Excellent
Samuel From Ajayi Crowther University
You guys just made life easier for students. Thanks alot iprojectmaster.com
Excellent
Musa From Ahmadu Bello University
Thank you iprojectmaster for saving my life, please keep it up and may God continue to bless you people.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!