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HYPERTENSION AND ITS PREVALENCE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 87  |  636 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

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HYPERTENSION AND ITS PREVALENCE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS ATTENDING THE DIABETES/HYPERTENSION CLINIC OF THE BUEA REGIONAL HOSPITAL

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

Epidemiological studies have consistently identified an important and independent link between high blood pressure and various disorders especially coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure and impaired renal function. Despite the fact that systolic and diastolic blood pressures have been constantly identified as independent risk factors of hypertension, systolic blood pressure has been associated with a higher relative risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, renal disease and general mortality.

Although high blood pressure is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, the risk is substantially increased by the presence and level of the other risk factors such as smoking, elevated serum cholesterol and diabetes. As a consequence, equal blood pressure levels carry different risks when associated with different combinations of risk factors. Assessing the total risk of cardiovascular disease has important implications for defining interventions thresholds in individuals with high blood pressure, (World Health Organization, 1996).

Hypertension or high blood pressure is a common and serious condition that can lead to or complicate many health problems. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality directly correlated with blood pressure also are risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), angina, heart failure, kidney failure or early death from a cardiovascular origin. Blood pressure generally rises with age and hypertension has also a variety of causes, which can be as a result of side effects of certain medications such as over-the-counter cold medications and oral contraceptives and other hormonal drugs. Obesity, heredity and lifestyle also play a role in the development of hypertension. When symptoms of hypertension do occur, they can differ between individuals depending on factors such as the level of blood pressure, age, underlying cause, medical history, the presence of complications and general health, (Siyad, 2011).

1.2 Problem Statement

Hypertension is not uncommon in young adults; the incidence among young adults is increasing with the years. It is progressively becoming a common health problem worldwide because of the cumulative longevity and prevalence of contributing factors such as obesity, physical inactivity and also unhealthy diets.

According to Merwe and Merwe (2015), general practitioners may be reluctant to make a diagnosis of hypertension in a young person, and may also lack confidence about how to investigate and treat the condition. Also, there is evidence that hypertension in young adults is less likely to be diagnosed or treated even when they have good access to primary health care.

1.3 Research Objectives

At the end of this project we hope to achieve the following:

1.3.1 General objective

Evaluate the prevalence of hypertension among young adults attending the Diabetes/ Hypertension clinic of the Buea Regional Hospital.

1.3.2 Specific objectives

1.  To evaluate the trend of hypertension among young adults attending the Diabetes/ Hypertension clinic of the Buea Regional Hospital within the period of the study.

2.  To calculate the prevalence of hypertension among young adults attending the Diabetes/ Hypertension clinic of the Buea Regional Hospital.

3.  To ascertain the prevalence by gender of hypertension among young adults attending the Diabetes/ Hypertension clinic of the Buea Regional Hospital.

1.4 Research Questions

In this project our focus was on the following questions:

1.  What is the prevalence of hypertension among young adults attending the Diabetes/ Hypertensive clinic of the Buea Regional Hospital?

2.  What is the prevalence by gender of hypertension among young adults attending the Diabetes/ Hypertension clinic of the Buea Regional Hospital?

1.5 Significance of Study

Hypertension is not common only with the elderly but affects individuals of all age groups. According to Packard, (2016) risk factors of hypertension in adults and possibly in children and adolescents includes the following: high blood cholesterol levels, being overweight, inactivity, smoking, kidney and heart disease, and use of prescription medications (such as steroid medications and birth control pills) or illegal leisure drugs (such as cocaine).

The young nowadays engage in activities that render them prone to the development of hypertension and other related health complications such as alcoholism and smoking; and they engage in little or no physical activities. This study will help promote the awareness that hypertension is real among young adults so as to encourage the putting in place of policies and measures to sensitise and mobilise our communities towards mitigating the disease among this group of people.

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