CLASSIFICATION AND KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT BY TECHNICAL LIBRARIANS IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES
Library classification forms part of the field of library and information science. It was a form of bibliographic classification (library classification are used in library catalogues, while “bibliographic classification”, also covers classification used in other kinds of bibliographic data bases). It goes hand in hand with cataloguing and classification, sometimes grouped together as technical services. The library professionals who engages in the process of cataloguing and classifying library materials is called a cataloguer or catalog librarian. Library classification scheme are one of the two tools used to facilitate subject access. The other consist of alphabetical indexing language such as Thesauri and subject headings. Library classification of a piece of work consists of two steps. Firstly, the aboutness of the material is ascertained. Next, a call number (essentially, a book’s address) based on the classification scheme in use at the particular library will be assigned to the work using the notation of the systems.
However, a library classification is a system of grouping the like terms and separating them from the unlike one’s. library classification documents library materials or any information (books), serials, audio visual material, computer files, maps manuscripts, realia) according to their subject and allocating a call number (information needed) to that information resources. Bibliographic classification schemes group entitles together that are relevant the same subject, typically arrange in a hierarchical tree structure (like classification schemes used in biology). A different kind of classification scheme called a faceted classification scheme is also widely used which allows the assignment. It multiple classifications to an objects, enabling the classification to be orderly in multiple ways. Barr Jim (2009) knowledge management is about cooperation and contact.
It is important to note that unlike subject headings or thesauri where multiple terms can be assigned to the same work, in library classification schemes, each work can be placed in one class. This is due to shelving purposes. A book can have only one physical place. However, in cataloguing one may have main entries as well as added entries most classification scheme like Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and library of congress classification scheme also add a cutter number to each work which adds code for the author of the work. Classification system in libraries generally play two roles. Firstly, they facilitate subject access by alloying the user to find out what is available in a give library on a particular topic. Secondly, they provide a known location for the information source to be accessed leg where it is shelved. Lawrence Sand Giles CL (2006) Accessibility Information on the web nature.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Library plays a very important role in this economic and industrial development of developed countries. As early as 1995, Ifidon (1995) demonstrated how libraries (i.e academic, public and special libraries) were important building blocks in the economic and industrial development of developed countries Ifidon (2005) documented several information services that were provided by libraries in Canada, Germany and United Kingdom (UK) to the industry. Community which includes: providing access to patents… informations, reference services borrowing privileges, current awareness services, inter library cooperations, translation services etc. The range of these services varied according to the resources which can be tapped and the financial support given by local government and industries. A study of Kansas public libraries in the United States of America also showed that nearly a third of business and economic development organization in all pars of the state used public libraries as a resources high proportions of business that have their own libraries also use the resources and services of public libraries in most cases in the United State of America (USA) such as library system of Lancaster Country (PA) and the Cecil Country (MD) public library. Small Business Information Centre (Hamilton Pennell, 2008).
Most libraries in African are still in a weak position to successful playing their roles in economic and industrial development. Libraries are still tied in the traditional role of providing access to information resources by only acquiring processing and disseminating library materials. Originally libraries were small, served the monitory and possessed a collection of books imported from colonial countries. This situation has not changed even when independence came to many African states. Most libraries have renamed with the Tittle content generated from the north, as their development was ignored in favour of the efforts to uplift poverty. Further, the rising cost of journal prices and adequate and expensive distribution mechanisms on knowledge and innovations in Africa have also inhabited libraries to provide access to updated and relevant literature for economic growth and industrial development journal subscriptions normally increase at rate of 11.16% every year beyond the reach of many institutions in Africa Ngika, (2006).
Academic libraries are among the best developed libraries in Africa and they can play a great role in serving the industry community. These libraries are well equipped. However, there is a significant variation in there development and growth both in quality because their support mainly comes from their institutions with minimum subsidization they receive from government or other affiliations (Ocholla, 2008) despite the development of ICT, changing nature it will also serve as a guide line for the students scholars in library and information science field of study. It will also serve as books of record in the field of information science.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
It is a common knowledge that the viability of academic library have not been explored nor utilized. This is because of the excruciating in effective equipment of libraries in the Nigerian contemporary societies which has been culminating to the traumatizing non-challant attitude of the masses towards sourcing information from libraries, lack of interest in academic study cum knowledge acquisitions from academic libraries in Anambra State. It is unfortunate that Anambra is a failed state in regards to library building and knowledge acquisitions this is demonstrated by the past governments of Anambra State on their failure to support effective library buildings in the state, which has been stigmatizing (militating) knowledge exploration in the academic setting which demoralizes the interested researchers (readers) in Anambra State for the past twelve years in which knowledge development in Academic Library has become a past history in Anambra State
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
In line with the statement of the problems of this study which are not limited to the excruciating lack of effective support towards equipping academic libraries non-challant attitude of masses towards gaining new knowledge from academic libraries lack of proper library classification which makes information difficult for the researches, this work aims to the following;
1) To find out factors affecting classification and knowledge development by technical librarians in Academic Libraries in the state.
2) To recommend the most possible solutions to those identified factors (affecting) militating against effective classification and knowledge development in Academic Libraries in this state.
3) To determine the strategy through which government of Anambra State will ensure proper and adequate library building in all the Academic settings.
4) To examine the level of information accessibility and enhance effective information dissemination for depositions in the Academic Libraries in Anambra State.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This field research work will be significance in the following ways;
i. It will serve as a book of reference for further research work in Anambra State and Nigeria general.
ii. This research work will also be significance in enhancing effective classification and knowledge development in Nigeria contemporary society and in Academic settings generally.
iii. It will be of great help in ensuring proper classification in Academic libraries in Anambra State. It will also serve as a guideline for the students, scholars in library and information. It will also serve as books of record in the field information science.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In line with the statement of the problems and in chronological with the purpose of this research work; the following (4) research questions were posed by the researcher which will guide this field research work.
1) What are the factors affecting effective classification and knowledge development academic libraries in Anambra State?
2) To what extent could there be solution to the problems militating against effective classification in Academic libraries?
3) To what extent does government of Anambra State enhance adequate library buildings in Academic environments?
4) To what extent do masses access and utilize the information in academic libraries in the state?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is focused on classification and knowledge development by technical libraries in Academic libraries in Anambra State. It covers the problems affecting effective classification and knowledge in Academic libraries. It also touches the solutions to the problems and the strategy designed through ensuring government and provide effective and active participation in Academic libraries buildings in the state.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In the course of this study the researcher encounters many impediments and challenges as follows: -
TIME CONSTRAINTS: Time constraint is one of the major factor that limits this course of study mean while, the researcher faced many activities coupled with her course of study.
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINT: The researcher of a student was financially constraint in the sense that she found it difficult to travel round Anambra State from week to week.
NON-CHALLANT ATTITUDE: of the respondents towards the questionnaires was also one of the factors that limited the researcher.
Some wrong information and fear of giving information among the respondents was also a difficult factor in achieving this research work target.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. CLASSIFICATION: Is a systematic arrangement of things, people, animals, books in groups or categories according to established criteria.
2. KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT: Is the process of capturing, developing, sharing and effectively using organizational knowledge. It refers to a multi disciplined approach to achieving organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge.
3. TECHNICAL LIBRARIES: These are the people that specialize in selecting, acquiring, processing, organizing, and preserving library materials.
4. ACADEMIC LIBRARY: Is a library attached to a higher institution which service (2) two contemporary purposes to support school curriculum and support the research work of the students and lecturers.
5. DDC: Dewey Decimal Classification.
6. LC: Library of congress classification.
7. ICT: Information and Communication Technology.
8. IFLA: International Federal of Library Association.
9. ALA: American Library Association
10. AACR: Anglo American Cataloguing Rule.
11. OPAC: Online Public Access Catalogue.
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