Management and supervision of schools for the purposes of achieving educational goals in the state has been the desire of every right thinking educational administrators. The purpose of this study therefore is to investigate how the problem of lack of infrastructural facilities, under-funding, poor teaching staff, poor service delivery by teachers and other various strategies could be solved in order to achieve the stated educational goals through proper management and supervision of schools. Two hundred and forty (240) research questionnaires were distributed to three educational sub-zones that made up Enugu Educational zone, the ministry of educational staff and the staff of post-primary school management as the population of the study. Five research questions each one focusing on the five main problems of the study were formulated. A descriptive statistics using mean was adopted for data analysis finding of the study showed that. Inadequate facilities and lack of instructional materials, under-finding, and poor labour force constitute major problems of management and supervision of our secondary school in those areas of study. The study was concluded with some recommendations which include; availability of fund to schools, feedbacks to schools for the correction of areas of weaknesses provision of adequate logistic to school inspectors and supervision provision of adequate labour force etc. the researcher believes that if all these are put in place, it will enhance proper and effective management and supervision of schools in order to achieve the stated educational goals.
In this chapter we will discuss about the background of the study, statement of problems, the purpose and significance of the study, research questions, scope and limitations of the study and definitions of some terms.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education in Nigeria is no more a private enterprise but a huge government venture that has witnessed a progressive evolution of government’s complete and dynamic intervention and active participation (FRN 1981). Based on the above, government has adopted education as an instrument per excellence for national growth and development and subsequently, launched the Universal Basic Education (UBE) in 1999. The introduction of the UBE resulted in an up-surge of students’ population in both primary and secondary school.
The unexpected increase in primary school enrolment which led to subsequent increase in secondary enrolment which created the problem of providing well trained and qualified staff to meet the new demand and answering the crucial questions of how to make suitable facilities available and ensure standards.
Government take over of schools because of it’s realization of the importance of education, couple with the ever increasing number of schools and enrolment explosion as a result of the introduction of the UBE, encouraged the employment of all and sundry into the teaching filed. This effected and is still affecting adversely the desired quality in education. In an attempt to improve the quality in education, school history official called (“inspectors”) (supervisors) were appointed to inspect the work of teachers and to know whether or not teachers are doing what they were supposed to do.
According to Wiles Lovell (1975.3), at that period inspector (supervisor) looked at the teachers as a passive instrument or tool of management that could be manipulated in such a way as to achieve the goals at the organization. The concentration on the teachers to the exclusion of other components in the teaching learning process placed the teacher in an embarrassing position as the focus of attention and the weak points in the educational process and thus made little effort towards improving instruction. The modern-day teachers are better trained and experienced and are professionals in their own fields, thus requiring effective education management and supervision which should be sensitive, democratic, informal co-operative, participating, comprehensive, active and dynamic in the light of the aformentioned, the researcher wish to contribute his own quota in educational development hence he delue into finding the effect of educational management and supervision in secondary schools.
The practice of management is as old as civilization. Breach in hall (1974) defined management as a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical planning and regulation of the operations of an enterprise in fulfillment of a given purpose or task, such responsibility involve. Judgement and decision determining plans and using data to control performance and progress against plans, and the guidance, integration, motivation and supervision of operations, principally, management is concerned with the determination of the overall policy of an organization and it takes place at various levels within the organization. Management is not confined only with business enterprise, it cut across all other facets of organization such as military, schools, hospitals, prisons etc.
According to Byrt (1989) management is the process through which an organizations strategy is formulated and is then implemented through the organization of work, people, finance and technology. Management in the modern context comprises the co-coordinated performance of the five specific managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling, (Osuola, 1984). Neglect or unskillful handling of any of these five functions will noticeably lower the effectiveness of an organization in it’s classical sense, management is being kin charge or being in control. Educational management is therefore being able to handle carefully and not watchfully what goes on in the process of educating people so that nothing goes out of hand.
Babalola et al (2006) succinctly expressed the whole essence of educational management when they opined that; “Educational management is a concept that goes along with quest to put the formal education system under control, regulation or supervision in its attempts to use carefully available scarce resources through co-operative efforts when establishing institutions of learning, rolling learners, attracting best staff, conducting teaching, learning and research, as well as graduating learners at all levels of education in an effective and efficient manner”. Educational Management according to them is synonymous with strategizing, planning, organizing, running, governance and supervision of the entire process of teaching and learning that takes place at all levels of formal education system supporting this peretomode, (2006) defined educational management as concerned with planning, and formulation of educational policies or programmes with a view to achieving educational goals.
According to Ebang and Agabi (2003) Educational Management is the totality of efforts that are brought to bear in the provision and delivery of education to ensure that both human and material resources allocated to education are used to the best advantage in the pursuit of educational goals and objectives. Educational Management is the activities to be performed. It is therefore concerned with planning and policy implementation.
This involves the ministry of education that is essentially the planner and policy maker formulating general education plan and policies while the school head is concerned more with analysis, interpreting and implementing the general plans and policies. In keeping with the general plans and policies in keeping with the above ascertain, inspectors otherwise known as supervisors were appointed t see the effective and efficient implementation of the policies geared towards uplifting to standard of education hence the introduction of school supervision. Regular supervision monitoring and evaluation will go a long way to help UBE programme goals and objectives to be realized.
A critical component of management and administration is supervision of instruction. It is aimed at directly overseeing teacher’s works regularly with the aim of assisting them to improve their teaching experiences and competencies. Reitig (2007) notes that supervision provides opportunities for teachers to be groomed through discursive critical study of classroom interaction to carryout their teaching tasks him line with professional codes of conduct. Ezegbe (2002) corroborates this point adding that adequate internal supervision of instruction stretches teaching competences to impressive limits. Adamaeche and Romanie (2000) defines supervision as a process of exercising authority, responsibility of planning, controlling work, overseeing subordinates by close contacts, proving guidance and leadership to workers. This can come to mind that the officers of the ministry of education under the schools to ensure that teachers and heads of these schools are performing their duties for which they are paid. How the school funds are being utilized teaching and learning conditions of the schools.
The nature and content of the curricula. The effectiveness of the teachers. They should monitor the progress of the schools and give vital advice that will enhance further progress. Failure to carry regular supervision and monitoring of secondary schools will mar the goals. Schools are established to achieve results through the deliberate, interaction and co-ordination of available resources. Supervision is necessary so that the participants within the schools does not loose focus in the attainment of the already stated objectives. Educational supervision is necessary as it acts as a side to achieving quality delivery of educational services.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Education industry in Nigeria has grown both in size and complexity such that neophytes in the field of educational management can no longer be effectively managed. It is no longer news that the Nigeria Educational system as faced with mirage of problems ranging from the continuous high enrolment of students at all levels, high cost of administer education, dwindling funding of schools, infrastructural decay to poor quality of our educational service deliver.
Also lack of well trained and qualified teachers to meet up with the new demands in the system has been a cag in the wheel of educational development. This has affected adversely the desired quality education in Nigeria. These problems in our educational system can hardly be addressed without the usage of trained educational managers and supervisors who will effect positive changes in the teachers, students and even the society in general. If Nigeria is to actively participate in the globalized society, her educational system must be efficiently and effectively managed to produce graduates with relevant skills and knowledge required in the contemporary society. Against this background the researcher seek to examine the effect educational managed and supervision achieving education goals in schools.
1.3 Purpose of Study
The primary purpose of this research work includes the following:
i. To find out the effect of educational management and supervision in achieving educational foals in schools.
ii. To determine the level of infrastructural decay and poor quality of service delivery has affected the achievement of educational goals.
iii. To determine the effect of dwindling finding of schools by the government in achieving educational goals.
iv. To proffer solutions on how to achieve optimum educational goals through effective management and supervision.
v. To find act various strategies to be employed by education administrators in order to manage students growing population in secondary school.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings from this research work will enlighten the government of Enugu State, Enugu Educational Zone and the entire society to see the need for effective educational management and supervision in achieving educational goals. This research work will unveil the strategies for managing the continuous enrolment of students as a result of the introduction of UBE by the education managers.
Also the findings of this study will enable the government to see the need for proper funding of schools, provision of infrastructural facilities, instructional materials, laboratory equipments etc. in order to achieve the educational goals as stated in the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004). The studies well enable the secondary school teachers to identify their problems and to seek the best way of solving them. Finally, the result of this study will suggest way of achieving optimum educational goals through effective management and supervision.
1.5 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions;
i. What are the effect of inefficient and supervision on secondary school teachers and students?
ii. To what extent has the dwindling of findings by the government affected the management and supervision of secondary schools in the state?
iii. To what extent has lack of infrastructural facilities equipments, instructional materials have affected the achievement of educational goals in Enugu Zone?
iv. What are the various strategies for school Administrators to manage the growing population of students in secondary school in order to achieve the stated education goals?
v. To what extent has poor service delivery by teachers affected the achievement of educational goals?
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is to examine the effect of educational management and supervision in achieving educational goals in secondary schools in Enugu Educational Zone. The study covers all the secondary school principals, teachers and students with the educational zone.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
In this, the researchers found certain factors, which were constraints in carrying out the research, these can be said to be time, finance or cost of stationeries, attitude of respondents and group members.
The researchers lack finance to buy stationeries and also in certain things like photocopying the work, transportation to places.
The researchers may not have the time to go out for research.
Some respondents which the researcher want to carry out the research work may not respond well as the research require from them.
The attitude of group members will also become a problem when they have a meeting and some refuse to be there.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
i. Management: The act of running and controlling a business or similar organization.
ii. Supervision: To be in charge of something and make sure that everything is done correctly, safety etc.
iii. Education goals: A process of teaching, training and learning, especially in schools or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills to achieve something.
iv. Secondary school: School for children between the ages of 11 and 18.
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