UTILIZATION OF STEEL SLAG FOR STABILIZATION OF A LATERITIC SOIL

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UTILIZATION OF STEEL SLAG FOR STABILIZATION OF A LATERITIC SOIL

 

ABSTRACT
A lateritic soil classified as sandy clay or (CL) and A-7-6 (5) according to Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and AASHTO classification system respectively,was treated with up to 10% pulverized steel slag (an industrial waste product) by dryweight of soil. Elemental and chemical analysis of the steel slag was determined using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Tests were carried out to determine the index properties, compaction characteristics (maximum dry density, MDD and optimum moisture content, OMC), strength characteristics (California bearing ratio, CBR and unconfined compressive strength, UCS) and permeability of the natural and treated soil. Test results show that Atterberg limits (liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index)
generally decreased, while specific gravity of soil " steel slag mixtures increased with higher steel slag content; MDD and OMC increased and decreased, respectively, with higher steel slag content. Generally, CBR and UCS increased up to 8% steel slag treatment of the soil. Permeability of soil " steel slag mixtures increased with higher steel slag content. Based on laboratory test results, an 8 % optimal stabilization of the A-7-6 soil with steel slag satisfactorily meets the Federal Republic of Nigerian General Specifications (Roads and Bridges) requirement for subgrade materials.

Table of Contents
CERTIFICATION ii
DEDICATION iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS x
ABSTRACT xi

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 

1.1 Preamble 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 1
1.3 Justification for the Study 2
1.4 Aim and Objectives 3
1.5 Scope of the Study 3
1.6 Significance of Study 4

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW 6

2.1 Background 6
2.2 What is Slag? 7
2.2.1 Slag Recycling 10
2.2.2 Utility and Usage of Slag Products 11
2.3 Efforts in Utilizing Slag 13
2.4 Production of Steel Slag 13
2.4.1 BOF Slag from Basic Oxygen Steelmaking 14
2.4.2 EAF Slag 17
2.4.3 Steel Slag Utilization 19
2.5 Properties of Steel Slag 20
2.5.1 Physical and Mechanical Properties 20
2.5.2 Chemical and Mineralogical Properties 23
2.6 Environmental and Health Considerations 27
2.7 Laterite and Lateritic Soils 27
2.8 Stabilization of Lateritic Soils 30

CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS 33

3.1 Materials and Preparation 33
3.1.1 Steel slag 33
3.1.2 Soil 33
3.2 Methods 34
3.2.1 Chemical composition of steel slag 36
3.2.2 Natural moisture content 36
3.2.3 Sieve analysis 37
3.2.4 Specific gravity 38
3.2.5 Atterberg limits 36
3.2.6 Compaction characteristics 39
3.2.7 Strength characteristics 38
3.2.8 Permeability 39

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 40

4.1 X-ray Fluorescence 41
4.2 Natural Soil 41
4.3 Sieve Analysis 41
4.4 Specific Gravity 42
4.5 Atterberg Limits 43
4.6 Compaction Characteristics of Lateritic Soil Sample 45
4.7 California Bearing Ratio 47
4.8 Unconfined Compressive Strength 49
4.9 Permeability 51
4.10 Optimal Stabilization 52

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 53

5.1 Conclusion 53
5.2 Recommendation 54
REFERENCES 55
APPENDIX: LABORATORY RESULT SHEETS 61

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