ROUTE SURVEY AND DESIGN OF PAREMENT OF ROAD

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ROUTE SURVEY AND DESIGN OF PAREMENT OF ROAD

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The importance of road to a community and its activities cannot be over emphasized. Road is as ole as man and plays a vital role in the movement of people and goods from one state to another. Good road network is one of the basic requirement that enhances the social, political and economic growth of a nation. It is obvious that life would have been very difficult without the existence of roads.

Nigeria for instance acknowledged the importance of good road network such that the local, state and federal government are all involved in the provision, development and maintance of roads in the country in other to boost economic aquaculture and commercial activities in the nation

History has shown that provision of grod road network is an important tool for civilization. Roads are of optinman benefit to the people in the sense that it brings about industrialization, commercialization in a community and also ease traffic cevgestion and facilitates the movement of agicultural products from the nrel areas to urban centers.

            AIM OF THE PROJECT

            The aim of the project is to pwide the student with the practical knowledge in the design of a road way with a bid to help the student execute such related project in real practice in tntive

            It is also aimed at marrying they with practice and also at during information on the nature and effectiveness of the subgrade material and suggort what should done with the aid of test results to alleriate parement failine

            RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY

            This is a quick type of survey or rapid examination of the ground and its adjacent natural features usually made without survey instruments to limit the alterate route in terms of cost to one or two

FACTORS NORMALLY CONSIDERED IN RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY

-          over all cartage of goods

-          Nearness to road material quauires

-          Traffic conditions

-          Soil condtions

-          Right of way or road land

-          Ruling gradient

-          Type of road surface

-          Number of major and minmor buildges

-          Approximate length and cost

-          Curvature along the alignment

GEOMETRIC DESIGN

This is the aspect of the high way design that is solely meant to take care of the road user and level of service rendered to him. The paramount factor of consideration include; expected traffic design speed and volume. Elaharty E.A. in his book “High way Traffic planning and Engineering states that proper geometric design will inevitably reduce the number and seventy of highway accidents while ensuring high traffic flow with minimum delay. He continued by saying that improper design would result in the early deterioration of the new high way with constant economic loss to the community.

            FACTORS, WHICH FAVOUR THE SELECTION OF ROUTE OR ROAD ALIGNMENT

            There are a number of factors, which favour the selection of a rounte or toad alignment for constriction and they include;

-          The route should be as straight as possible. This implies least cost of construction, maintenance and operation of velicles as wear and tear on curved routs are entirely eliminated

-          Vertical and hnizontal alignments should be eased out with maximum radius of curatous in relation to design speed and maximum rate of super elevation

-          Good sight distance should be maintained sight distance or visibility is the distance measured along the centre line of a road over which the driver can see the opposite object on the road for the necessary application of brake and stopping of vehicle to avoid any accident.

-          Applicability of proper road drainage: immediate evacuation of rain water on pavements as well as on the embitterment of a high way is necessary if the high way is to last till the end of the design life generally taken as 20 years.

-          Availability of road building materials such as stone, grarels, ard, laterite etc along the highway bring down the cost of construction as well as maintenance cost

-               Freedom from slides should be ensoud for construction on hilly areas of cuts it is necessary to ensure that the construction the road does not produce earth cutting slides or earth cutting slipes

-          Good soil formation should be ensured strurborn soil normally provke early deformation and soft cutting and result in costly constructions.

-          Avoidance of impaired visibility: The alignment should cross another road or railway alignment or stream preferably at right angles to ensure visibility at these crossings. 

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

            The scope of the project includes leveling operation, traversing of the road, soil estuation, design of cure and pavement design and drainage.

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