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HYDRAULIC MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF WASTE STABILIZATION POND DESIGN FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 65  |  808 Users found this project useful  |  Price NGN3,000

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HYDRAULIC MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF WASTE STABILIZATION POND DESIGN FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS

 

ABSTRACT 
Wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) have been identified and are used extensively to 
provide wastewater treatment throughout the world. It is often preferred to the conventional treatment systems due to its higher performance in terms of pathogen removal, its low maintenance and operational cost. A review of the literature revealed that there has been limited understanding on the fact that the hydraulics of waste stabilization ponds is critical to their optimization. The research in this area has been relatively limited and there is an inadequate understanding of the flow behavior that exists within these systems. This work therefore focuses on the hydraulic study of a laboratory-scale model WSP, operated under a controlled environment using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling and an identified optimization tools for WSP.A field scale prototype pond was designed for wastewater treatment using a typical residential institution as a case study. This was reduced to a laboratory-scale model using dimensional analysis. The laboratory-scale model was constructed and experiments were run on them using the wastewater taken from the university wastewater treatment facility. 
The study utilized Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupled with an optimization 
program to efficiently optimize the selection of the best WSP configuration that satisfy 
specific minimum cost objective without jeopardizing the treatment efficiency. This was 
done to assess realistically the hydraulic performance and treatment efficiency of scaled 
WSP under the effect of varying ponds configuration, number of baffles and length to 
width ratio. Six different configurations including the optimized designs were tested in the 
laboratory to determine the effect of baffles and pond configurations on the effluent 
characteristics. The verification of the CFD model was based on faecal coliform 
inactivation and other pollutant removal that was obtained from the experimental data. 
 The results of faecal coliform concentration at the outlets showed that the conventional 
70% pond-width baffles is not always the best pond configuration as previously reported 
in the literature. Several other designs generated by the optimization tool shows that both 
shorter and longer baffles ranging between 49% and 83% for both single and multi-
objective optimizations could improve the hydraulic efficiency of the ponds with different 
variation in depths and pond sizes. The inclusion of odd and even longitudinal baffle 
arrangement which has not been previously reported shows that this configuration could 
improve the hydraulic performance of WSP. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the 
model parameters to determine the influence of first order constant (k) and temperature 
(T) on the design configurations. The results obtained from the optimization algorithm 
considering all the parameters showed that changing the two parameters had effect on the 
effluent faecal coliform and the entire pond configurations.  
This work has verified its use to the extent that it can be realistically applied for the 
efficient assessment of alternative baffle, inlet and outlet configurations, thereby, 
addressing a major knowledge gap in waste stabilization pond design. The significance of 
CFD model results is that water and wastewater design engineers and regulators can use 
CFD to reasonably assess the hydraulic performance in order to reduce significantly faecal 
coliform concentrations and other wastewater pollutants to achieve the required level of 
pathogen reduction for either restricted or unrestricted crop irrigation. 

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