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ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY AND POVERTY STATUS AMONG HOUSEHOLDS IN EHIME MBANO

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ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY AND POVERTY STATUS AMONG HOUSEHOLDS IN EHIME MBANO

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Food security is a concept that has evolved during the 1990s far beyond a traditional focus on the supply of food at the national level. This concept has been given general definitions in time past but in recent times, there has been a divergence of ideas on what food security really means. food security is  defined as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. The committee on world food security defined it as physical and economic access to adequate food by all household members without undue risk of losing the access. However, the definition adopted by the countries attending the world food summit of 2016, and reconfirmed in 2012, accepts the USAID’S concept which has three key elements viz; food availability, food access and food utilization. However, a fourth concept is increasingly becoming accepted namely, “the risks that can disrupt anyone of the first three factors” There are therefore four major elements of food security. They are food availability, food access, food utilization and not loosing such access. Availability, access and utilization are hierarchical in nature. Food availability is necessary but not sufficient for food accessibility and access is necessary but not sufficient for utilization. In a larger sense, two broad groups of factors determine food security. These are supply side factors and demand side factors. The supply-side factors are those that determine food supply or food availability. In other words, they are determinants of physical access to food at national, household and intra-household levels. The demand side factors on the other hand are factors that determine the degree of access of countries, households and individuals to available food. They are, in other words, determinants of economic access to food or determinants of entitlement to available food.  Food insecurity or lack of access to nutritionally adequate diet in a household or country can take various forms. For example, chronic food insecurity exists when food supplies are persistently insufficient to supply adequate nutrient for all individuals. Transitory food insecurity occurs when there is a temporary decline in access to adequate food because of instability in food production, food price increases or income shortfalls.   We may distinguish between national food security and household food security. This distinction is necessary because an aggregate supply of food, from domestic sources or import or both, are prerequisite but certainly not a sufficient condition for a food secure situation in a country. In other words, adequate availability of food in Nigeria on a per capita basis does not necessarily translate to sufficient and adequate food for every citizen. Food security at household level is a subset of the national level and it requires that all individuals and households have access to sufficient food either by producing it themselves or by generatingsufficient income to demand for it. The research intends to profer an analysis of food security and poverty status among holds in Ehime Mbano.  

 
1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem confronting the research is an analysis of food security and poverty status among household in Ehime Mbano. 

  1.3   RESEARCH    QUESTION

1    What is the nature of food security?
2   What is the challenge of poverty status among household  on food security?   
3   What is the challenge of poverty on food security in Ehime Mbano?  

1.4   OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1. To proffer an analysis of food security and poverty status among household  
2.  To determine food security and poverty status among household in Ehime Mbano    

1.5      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study shall project the level of food security and poverty among household with a view to proffer measures to mitigate and eliminate food insecurity and poverty among households.  

1.6      STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

1      H0   Poverty level among household in Ehime Mbano is low         
H1   Poverty level among household in Ehime Mbano is high  
2      H0   Food security in Ehime Mbano is low       
H1   Food  security in Ehime Mbano is high  
3            H0    Effect of poverty on food security  in Ehime Mbano is low
H1    Effect of poverty on food security in Ehime Mbano is high    

1.7      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research is an analysis of food security and poverty status among households in Ehime Mbano  

1.8      DEFINITION OF TERMS
FOOD SECURITY

Food security is defined as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. The committee on world food security defined it as physical and economic access to adequate food by all household members without undue risk of losing the access. However, the definition adopted by the countries attending the world food summit of 1996, and reconfirmed in 2002, accepts the USAID’S concept which has three key elements viz; food availability, food access and food utilization    

FOOD INSECURITY DEFINED

Food insecurity or lack of access to nutritionally adequate diet in a household or country can take various forms. For example, chronic food insecurity exists when food supplies are persistently insufficient to supply adequate nutrient for all individuals. Transitory food insecurity occurs when there is a temporary decline in access to adequate food because of instability in food production, food price increases or income shortfalls.

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