AN ANALYSIS OF INFANT MORTALITY RATE FROM 1995 TO 2004

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 75  |  430 Users found this project useful  |  Price ₦3,000

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

AN ANALYSIS OF INFANT MORTALITY RATE FROM 1995 TO 2004

 

ABSTRACT

We had tried to study the rates of infant mortality in Abia State.  The aims of this study were to compare the mortality and birth rate of infants male and female in order to determine whether there is a significant yearly difference in their mortality and birth rate.  Also, to determine whether infant mortality in Abia State in independent of sex. And furthermore to determine the future trend cases for birth and death and as well determine some preventive measures to reduce the infant’s mortality. It was found that there was decrease in mortality from year 2000 to 2004 in Abia State.  This is due to the aggressive government policy on the reduction of infant and maternal mortality through the pursuance of the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) and Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI).  It was also observed that there was an increase in mortality as from 1995 to 1999 due to a cholera epidemic recorded then as published by “your Health Magazine” 1998 Vol 3. Finally, we advice that good drinking water, good and affordable health services, proper refuse disposal should be encouraged to reduce the infant mortality in order to encourage the continuity of our race.

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0  INTRODUCTION

Since Nigeria got her independence in the year 1960, the federal government has been doing a lot in the following sectors:- Agric-culture, Education, Industries, Health Services, Banking among others. In the area of Health Services, the governments efforts has been to ensure that she achieves good health for all especially women children.  The evidence of her effort is made manifest in the construction of many public health institutions through out the states.  These include the following: Hospitals, Health Centres, Health Clinics, maternities and Mobile Clinics. Recently, there has been a general increase towards health improvement, this is as a result of greater awareness, better organization, increased public health consciousness, changes in medical practices among others; however, these advances may appear insignificant when compared to the magnitude of the problems still to be solved especially as it concerns infant diseases and infant mortality.

According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, Mortal means to die; that cannot live forever.  Encyclopedia Britannica expressed the state of being mortal as the state of temporalness of living, or not to live forever. In these modern times there have been an increase in world population and stability ad decline in number would be regarded as abnormal.  As Berkley (1958) said, “modern phrase of recent origin started from the peiod of 1600; the growth is quite unprecedented in any comparable period”.  One can view from the above statement, that such changes in population are inherently transitory. In countries of West Africa records of health did not start until orthodox medium arrived, but it was recognized prior to the arrival of the white men.  There were high incidence of killer diseases which affected maternal and infant health leading to high mortality of infants.  Moreover, the sanitary condition of our local populace, mode of feeding and general condition leaves much to be desired, also lack of health infrastructures created problems that led to high infant mortality.

Again, other causes of infant mortality are recognized killer childhood diseases viz; measles, malaria, small pox, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis, poliomyelitis, dyphytaria and jaundice.  In late 80’s government of Nigeria through the National Programme on Immunization and Expanded Programme on Immunization has achieved a lot to the improvement of infant health. Now, according to recent health journals “Health care” the liming legs are fastly dis appearing, the plague of onchosochaisis caused by the black fly is gone.  Our children and infants are living today without it.  Poliomyelitis is about being kicked out from the shores of our country courtesy of the three months immunization programme of year 2000.

1.1   HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The federal medical center Umuahia was built in the early 1950’s by the joint effort of the protestant churches, the Anglican, Methodist and Presbyterian churches.  The three churches agree to build a joint hospital and work together as a means and avenue of a joint Christian medical services and Christian evangelism.  Trained and qualified competent Christian ladies were generally nurses and midwifery and this created an environment for true Christian gospel and evangelism.  The hospital was first named Union Mission Joint Training Hospital.  Nurses and student nurses were drawn from hospitals named by three denominations and located at Iyi Enu Ituk Mbang and Etinagi all in Calabar to run the hospital.  Later as a mark of appreciation and courtesy to Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain when she formally and officially opened the hospital in 1956, during the regime of his excellency the governor of the Eastern Region of Nigeria, Sir. Clement Plear, it was renamed Queen Elizabeth Hospital.

Soon after its establishment, the hospital gained popularity and reputation, but it suffered a set back during the Nigeria civil war from 1967 – 1970 when most of the medical equipments were looted.  Moreover, indigenous missionaries could not maintain the hospital after the departure of the foreign missionaries at the end of the war. Consequently, it management was taken over by the government, which converted it to a sepcialsit hospital by the East Central State of Nigeria Edit No 6 of 1972: with the creation of the Imo State Government, she changed the name of Ramat specialist Hospital in honour of the later Head of State General Ramat Murtala Mohammed, under the direction of Navy Captain Ndubuisi Kanu, the then military governor.  It reverted to Queen Elizabeth hospital of the 16th December 1983, sequel to a request by the people of old Imo State. 

The hospital was again taken over by the Federal Government on 1st May, 1992 and was renamed Federal Medical Centre Umuahia. The Federal Medical Centre Umuahia is located at Umuahia the capital of Abia State.  The hospital has ten wards, two medical wards on each for male and female, maternity wards, the pediatrics ward, two theatres, one for obstetrics and other for general surgery.  Other areas of the hospital includes: the Antenatal clinics, x – ray department, pharmacy and medical laboratories units, medical records/ statistics among others. The hospital has two training schools, the school of Nursing and the school of midwifery.  It has a staff strength of about 720; made up of medical doctors, Nurses, House of Officers, Laboratory Technicians and Scientists, Accounting of Officers, records Officers, Pharmacists, Administrative Officers, Attendants, among others.

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The researcher was very much worried and concerned about the alarming rate at which infants were dying in Abia State and the following statements and questions below prompted him to go into the study about the rate of infant mortality in Abia State.

1.  The rate of infant mortality in Abia State was alarming.

2.  The rate of infants mortality may have been more in a particular sex

3.  The rate of infant’s mortality may have been caused by many factors among which disease were the chief.

4.  The rate of infant’s mortality in Abia State should follow a particular trend over the years.

5.  There should be some preventive measures to reduce the number of infant’s death that may occur in Abia State.

1.3   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What are the major causes of infant mortality in Abia State?

2.  Is there any means to compare mortality rate of infant male and female to know whether there is significant yearly difference in their mortality rate?

3.  Does infant mortality rate in Abia State dependent on sex?

4.  Can the trend of infant mortality in Abia State be established?

5.  Are there some preventive measures to reduce the number of infants death that may occur in Abia State?

1.4   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1.  To compare mortality rate of infant male and female in order to know whether there is significant yearly difference in their mortality rate.

2.  To determine whether infant mortality in Abia State is independent of sex.

3.  To suggest possible preventive measures to reduce the number of infant deaths that may occur.

4.  To determine the trend of the infant mortality rate.

5.  Based on the findings, recommendation will be made.

1.5       STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES

This study is testing for the following hypothesis:

Hypothesis I

Ho:  There is significance difference in the yearly mortality rate of infants male and female.

Hi:  There is not significance difference in the yearly mortality rate of infants male and female.

Hypothesis II

Ho:  Infant mortality in Abia State is independent of sex.

Hi:  Infant mortality in Abia State is not independent of sex.

1.6  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This project work is restricted to the federal medical center, Umuahia in Abia State.  The study covers a period of ten years from 1995 to year 2004.

1.8  DEFINITION OF TERMS

The terms used in this study are all Demography terms and are peculiar t o the subject matter alone. Below are some of the terms commonly used in this study, which constitute the reference terms and will aid data analysis.

DEMOGRAPHY:  This is the study of human population and some of the factors that causes change in its composition and size.

MORTALITY:  The state of being mortal, mortal means that must die; that cannot live forever, a state of temporal living or existence.

NEO-NATAL MORTALITY:  This is the mortality of infants within the first 28 days of birth.  Some of which are caused by the circumstances of birth.

INFANT MORTALITY RATE: Mortality rate is the index of death over the index of birth for a given period of at least one year.  Infant mortality can be defined as the number of death under one year over the number of live birth times 1000.

i.e        D  x   K

Where D is the number of death in B, a particular year.

B is the number of birth in the same year

K is a constant and is equal to 1,000 which is No of death under one year x 1000?

No of live births: This shows clearly the measures within a given year of chances of birth failing to survive in one year life time.

To calculate separately for the sexes:

Female =          No of female death  x  1000

                                    No of female births

 

Males   =          No of males death   x  1000

                                    No of males birth

MORBIDITY:  Morbidity involves the statistics of ill health of a population.  It includes the rate of illness, injuries, accidents etc.

DISEASE:  This is the state of being morbid, it is caused by infections or undergrowth.  There are air borne disease, water borne diseases, insect borne diseases, and sexually transmitted diseases.

Water Borne Diseases: These are caused by some aquatic living organisms which when they enter human body cause disease. They include some Fungi, Algae, bacteria etc.  Also bad source of water supply where sewage and refuse are badly disposed can lead to severe cause of water borne diseases.  These diseases include typhoid fever, cholera, diarrhea, dysentery etc.

Air Borne Disease:  These are diseases which can be contacted or transmitted from a carrier to a healthy person through the air. Free-living bacteria or parasite transmits these diseases.  These diseases are coughs, measles, catarrh, whooping cough, chicken pox and polio.

Insect Borne Diseases:  These are diseases carried by insect vectors.  These vectors visits and plague human environs disposing bacterium to their food.  Diseases like typhoid fever, diarrhea and cholera are carried by housefly.  Mosquitoes carry malaria parasite and trypanosomiasis is caused by tsetse fly, while onchosochaisis is caused by African black fly.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases:  These are significantly important because some of them affects fertility rate, there are disease acquired through sexual intercourse between the victim and any member of the adult population. Examples of such diseases are Gonorrhea, syphilis HIV/AIDS etc.

POPUALTION:  This refers to the total number of individuals or items relevant to a phenomenon under investigation.

STILL BIRTH:  This refers to that fetus that has not developed to a full baby and is release from the utemis prematurely and as a result couldn’t survive.

LIVE BIRTH:  This refers to full developed babies or babies born prematurely yet in both cases the babies survived.

MATERNAL MORTALITY:  This refers to all the women that die during the process of child delivery.

INFANT:  These are children between the age zero to one year.

INFANT MORTALITY:  This refers to the death of children whose age is between zeros to one calendar year.

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent
Merry From BSU
I am now a graduate because of iprojectmaster.com, God Bless you guys for me.
Excellent
Samuel From Ajayi Crowther University
You guys just made life easier for students. Thanks alot iprojectmaster.com
Excellent
Musa From Ahmadu Bello University
Thank you iprojectmaster for saving my life, please keep it up and may God continue to bless you people.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!