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A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE IN NIGERIA

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0   Background of the Study  
Sincerely, examination malpractice is a canker worm that has eaten deep into the nations fabrics; it has become a menace to the Nigeria society. Presently, our educational system is in shambles this is as a result of inconsistencies and carelessness, non-implementation of educational policies, and corrupt practices in high places. As it stands, perhaps, the most potent threat to our educational system in the country is examination malpractices. This menace has enthroned itself like a king in our various academic institutions. The climax is the constant alarming failure rate recorded in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations conducted by the West African Examinations Council and the constant graduation of unemployable graduates from our higher institutions. The malady continues to generate heat among concerned citizens, scholars, governments and the media. Examination malpractices are those illegal actions taken during examination that are against the rules of an examination. Examination malpractice in Nigeria is in diverse dimension spanning from talking in an examination to coming in with books or use of electronic devices like cell phones and gadgets in communication during an examination, more alarming is the constant leaking of examination questions before the scheduled date of the examination. Simply put examination malpractice any form of illegal and unauthorized assistance given to a single candidate or group of candidates in an examination.  Examination malpractice is not a new event in Nigeria, maduemezia (2008) reported that the first examination malpractice in Nigeria was recorded in 1914 during the senior council local examination papers which were leaked before the scheduled date of the examination. Examination malpractice which started on a less pronounced scale only increased geometrically afterwards. Examination malpractice is one of those cardinal factors inhibiting or militating against the growth of education in Nigeria. The rate at which people indulge in this unholy act caused more harm than good in the development of education in Nigeria. This canker worm has led to institutions producing half baked graduates of secondary school leavers.   If examination malpractice is tackled and defeated or better still reduced to the barest minimum, Nigeria will become a better place where credibility and integrity is respected.
1.1   Statement of the Problem 
In Nigeria today, it is no longer news that this malady called examination mal practice has become a monster fighting the development of education in Nigeria. The alarming causes and effects of this menace have led us to this research work. They’ve equally been a lot of controversies on the actual causes of examination malpractice, most people believe government should be held responsible while some others are of the opinion that the increasing rate of this unholy act is entirely down to Nigerian students. There is also a major concern of the future of our country if examination mal practice is not defeated; would it spill over to others sectors of the economy if this malady isn’t fought to a standstill? This is one major concern was what led us to this research work.  
1.2   Aims and objectives of the study
 The study is aimed at the following:
·        To find out the major causes of examination mal practice in Nigeria.
·        To find out the major effects of examination mal practice in Nigeria.
·        To recommend ways of eradicating examination mal practice in Nigeria.
·        To know if there is a statistical relationship between examination malpractice, gender and age group.
·        To educate the general public on the causes and effects of examination malpractice.
·        To know if there is a significant relationship between the high level of unemployment and examination malpractice in Nigeria.      
1.3   Significance of the study
 The importance of this study is to know the actual causes and effects of examination malpractice in Nigeria, this would help the general public to declare war on this malady. A major significance of the study is to know if examination mal practice is sex or age based, that is, is there a significant relationship between examination malpractice, age and sex. Are they correlated or not? Another significance of this study is to know if there is a significant relationship between unemployment and examination malpractice in Nigeria.
1.4   Scope and limitations of the study
 For the purpose of this study as the topic depicts, the scope of the study will be focused on the statistical analysis of examination mal practice in Nigeria. Another scope of this study is to know if a relationship exists between unemployment in Nigeria and examination malpractice. An equally major scope of this study is to know if examination malpractice is gender or aged based or related. Discovering the major causes and effects of unemployment in Nigeria is equally a scope of this study.  
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
It is necessary to mention some of the limitations of this research work. The chief limitation is the difficulty in obtaining relevant information, some information required from respondents in questionnaires were not given by respondents but these missing values were not  statistical significant enough to be noticed.   Notwithstanding, in the highlighted limitation above, it is hoped that this research will be useful to Nigerians, organizations that may be interested in our research.        
1.5    Definition of Terms ·       
Exam: a formal written, spoken or practical test, especially at school or college to see how much you know about a subject or what you can do. ·       
Malpractice: careless, wrong or illegal behavior.    
1.6   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
 The research hypotheses are as follows:
HYPOTHESIS 1
H0: there is no significant relationship between examination malpractice and unemployment in Nigeria.
H1: there is a significant relationship between examination malpractice and unemployment in Nigeria.
Level of significance: 0.05
Decision rule: reject H0 if p-value is less than the level of significance. Accept H0 if otherwise.  
HYPOTHESIS 2
H0: there is no significant relationship between age and examination malpractice in Nigeria.
H1: there is a significant relationship between age and examination malpractice in Nigeria.
Level of significance: 0.05
Decision rule: reject H0 if p-value is less than the level of significance. Accept H0 if otherwise.  
HYPOTHESIS 3
H0: there is no significant relationship between gender and examination malpractice in Nigeria.
H1: there is a significant relationship between gender and examination malpractice in Nigeria.
Level of significance: 0.05
Decision rule: reject H0 if p-value is less than the level of significance. Accept H0 if otherwise.

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