THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF PLANT MILK (SOYA BEAN)

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CHAPTER ONE  
1.0    INTRODUCTION
 The soy is a low cost source of protein that has been consumed in Asian nations for many countries. The rapid growing population fo the developing countries is facing acute shortage of protein, Soy bean is rich protein content and contains fiber. Soybeans are the least processed form of Soy protein, its available in most grocery stores, they can be purchased in fresh, frozen or roasted forms. These beans can be eaten alone, like peas or added to salads and stir fies. Tofu: Curdling Soy mil with a coagulant makes tofu or bean curd its available in both soft and firm forms, tofu can be used in a variety of recipes to partially replace either meat or diary product due to the common use of calcium sulphate as the curdling agent, Tofu can also be a good source of calcium (Chdi wenm et al; 2000). Soymilk: Soymilk is another high quality source of Soy protein that is an alternative of diary animal milk and available in variety of forms including plain, vanilla and chocolate, it can also be used to replace milk added to coffee, tea or cereal.
Human beings are the only species to consume milk past childhood. We are also the only species to consume the milk of another species. There are some great nutritional benefits to milk, for example milk naturally contains a readily absorbable form of calcium and has higher quality protein than soy milk. In this condition known as lactose intolerance, it causes unpleasant abdominal symptoms including stomach cramps, flatulence and diarrhea. Lactose intolerance is reality for 75% for the world population, even though consuming diary is unnatural and problematic for many people. There are many people who cannot drink cow milk because of a milk allergy or out of a values choice like vegan. Soymilk is a healthy drink and is important for people with above problems and had been the first production ever prepared and consumed by human since long ago. Soymilk not only provides protein but also is a source of carbohydrate, lipid, vitamins and minerals. Milk composition describes the chemical and physical properties and effect of pasteurization on the compound in milk. The variation in milk composition are:
·         Carbohydrate (Lactose)
·         Fat/Oil
·         Protein
·         Vitamins and minerals.
·         Enzymes.  
How the body digests foods and absorbs nutritional components          
Food undergoes mechanical, chemical and enzymatic digestion as it travels from the mouth from the mouth to the stomach to the intestines. Many chemicals, enzymes, hormones, glands and organs are involved in the absorption of nutrients from food.          
The first step is mechanical digestion in the mouth chewing food to break it into small pieces. Saliva, secreted by the salivary gland, contains water that helps dissolve food to make it easier to swallow. Saliva contains the enzyme amylase that begins to break down larger carbohydrate molecules, which makes them easier to digest in the small intestine. Mechanical digestion continues in the stomach as it churns the food and mixes it with gastric juice. The stomach contains hydrochloric acid that dissolves additional foods components that didn’t dissolve in saliva. The highly acidic environment in the stomach causes protein to unfold (denature) so that they can interact with the enzyme pepsin, which breaks down proteins into smaller molecules (peptides) for easier digestion in the small intestine. Gastric lipase begins to break down fats in digestion in the small intestine.          
The majority of food digestion occurs in the small intestine, the duodenum. As food leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum, hormones signal the pancreas to release sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the stomach acid so that digestive enzymes can act. The pancreas releases enzymes for the digestion of all major food components. Proteases to break down proteins into small peptides, amylases to break down fats. Hormones trigger the release of bile that is produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder to aid in emulsification of fats for digestion and absorption. Breakdown of peptides into amino acids and small carbohydrate into individual sugar molecules occurs by enzymes that are secreted by the intestinal cells.     
The main carbohydrate in milk is lactose which is a molecule that must be broken down (hydrolyzed) into its two individual sugars (glucose and galactose) before absorption. Lactose is broken down by the enzyme lactase that is secreted by the intestinal cells. Lactase often decrease as people age or may be deficient in some populations which can result in lactose mal absorption or lactose intolerance.          
Absorption of nutrients occurs in the second and third section of the small intestine, the jejunum and ileum. Proteins, carbohydrate, fats, fat-soluble vitamins, water soluble vitamins and mineral are absorbed by diffusion across the cell membranes, other require transporters on binding proteins the absorption of fats involves a complex network of lipid carriers.          
After absorption of nutrients in the small intestine, the remaining mass moves into the large intestine. The function of the large intestine is to absorb water and sodium and prepare the remaining mass for excretion by the body.  
1.1    IMPORTANCE OF MILK          
Milk is one of the greatest blessings that is given to human by nature. Milk is considered a complete and great food. People is past used milk and things made by it most of the time like cheese, butter in subcontinent. According to research of health experts the secret behind long ages and good health of people of subcontinent in past was use of milk.          
Milk is proved a complete food from latest scientific researchers, all the important elements that are needed for body are in milk. Milk has hundreds of benefits to our bodies, health and mind, specially the milk of cow and goat as many benefits. The milk of cow keeps the stomach system of old people and kids strong, most of the people drinks milk while sleeping but its not the correct time of drinking it. The correct time of drinking milk is in morning. Milk even powdered milk is a nutritious, cost, efficient source of protein minerals and vitamins, milk is now often pushed aside to make space for excessively sugary sodas, juice and sports drinks that contribute empty calories to diets already so full of unhealthy choices that many populations are now experiencing unmatched levels of diet-related obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer.

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