DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GAS LEAKAGE DETECTOR USING GSM MODULE

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) detection is very important because gas is not only an explosive but also acts as asphyxiant. It can therefore cause serious harm to your health, your family health and homes. Liquefied petroleum gas detection was pioneered in the twentieth century by coal miners who used canary birds that would pass out if there were any spike in the amount of methane in the atmosphere. Thankfully, methods of LPG gas detection have moved on from this primitive means of highlighting its presence in the air. There are now a number of methods and devices you can use for LPG gas detection. Let us briefly look at why the gas poses such a threat to human health. The use of liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in energy sector is rapidly increasing day by day because of its properties like high calorific value, low smoke and less soot. These days LPG is most widely used in automobiles, homes and industries.
The LPG or Natural gas is flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases like propane, butane. Due to these properties of LPG or Natural gas the leakage of these gases is a serious concern, as it results into serious threats to living beings. The worldwide natural gas or LPG transportation is done by the cylinders and high pressurized gas pipe lines. In the course of transportation, storage or usage, unwanted leaks arise due to mishandling, ageing, accidents, vandalism. LPG can lead to explosions in coal shafts, the gas trapped in the rock can be released as a result of mining and also fires in landfill sites as a result of a process known as methanogenesis. In the home, LPG is used for cooking. In advanced countries where gas tunnels pass close to sewer pipes, there is also a risk of LPG leaking into your home from sewer pipes.
LPG in the atmosphere is dangerous because our lungs only function normally when the atmospheric concentration of oxygen is more than twenty per cent. If the level falls below this as a result of it being replaced by LPG, it can trigger asphyxiation and if undetected will ultimately lead to death. Let us now turn to the various methods of methane gas detection. LPG leakage has been responsible for several fire outbreaks, in Nigeria, along the Lagos-Ibadan expressway, on the 9th of June 2012, a petrol tanker exploded and left several dead and many wounded. In a survey of burns conducted by (A.O Oladele &J.K Olabanji, 2010) 50% of burns in Nigeria have resulted from leakages resulting from leak in gas storage containers, tankers and petrol containers. LPG spillage has also resulted in severe environmental pollution seepage of spilled fuels into the soil and groundwater and has bad effect on drinking water, aquatic plants and animals, and has lead major oil companies to pay huge settlement fees. To avoid these situations a number of efforts have been devoted to develop a reliable technique for detecting LPG leakage.    
A response to the stated problem is to develop a system that warns the user by text messages.  This system is very important because it provides real time monitoring of the LPG leakage, and can help in early detection of leakage before it becomes fatal. It will help in reducing the spillages, fire outbreaks that occur from LPG leakage. The advantages of these systems are low cost, low power absorption, low maintenance and suitable for real time data defective of potential risk area. An economic embedded system based gas leakage detector is design in using MQ_6 gas sensor.  This project provides a cost effective and high sensitive embedded system based solution for LPG gas leakage detection in automobiles, homes and industries. The system uses MQ_6 gas sensor which detect the gas leakage and alerts the consumer by sending an SMS to configured mobile number with the help of a GSM module. .  This chapter discusses the project background, the problem of the project, the objectives of the project, project scope and applications of the project.  
1.2  PROBLEM STATEMENT  
With the ever increasing demand for LPG as a source of energy for plants, equipment and the ever increasing value of LPG, carelessness, vandalism and accidents has lead to the demand for a system that monitors real time values of LPG content in the atmosphere. In satisfying the demand for monitoring, questions from consumers and stakeholders as to if locations, pipelines, storage areas can be monitored from places far from the control room. A systematic solution to this particular problem is developing a system that analyses the value of LPG in the atmosphere, compares it with the set threshold value, and communicate with the third party (control room or consumer). To accomplish this, a system capable of monitoring liquefied petroleum gas through a gas sensor and sending messages to the specified number without any time delay if there is gas leakage. This research will also include the factors that will affect the system’s performance and ways to mitigate them to ensure maximum accuracy.  
1.3  AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this project is to Design and Construct a Microcontroller Based Liquefied Petroleum Gas Detection system using GSM Module, a system capable of detecting if there is gas leakage and sends messages to specified number informing them about the leakage without any time delay. This design work was achieved by using a gas sensor which monitor and detect if there is a gas leakage, and a microcontroller which is programmed to send the necessary information to a GSM module and the information is send to a specified number. The system also has a backup battery to keep it working when there is power failure.   
1.4  SCOPE OF PROJECT
This project work will only send text message to the specified number, as its method of monitoring. The project work will only study and identify conditions affecting the implementation of the project.    
1.5  APPLICATIONS
This project is applicable in following fields:  Domestic gas leakage detector, Industrial Combustible gas detector, Portable gas detector, homes, factories, LPG storage, gas cars, hotels etc  
1.6  OUTLINE OF REMAINING CHAPTERS
Below is a brief summary of what the remaining chapters contain:
Chapter 2: This chapter cover the analysis of existing system and a brief review of the principles behind the system.  
Chapter 3: This chapter covers the methodology, design calculation and the mode of operation.  
Chapter 4: This chapter covers the construction of this work, testing, results and observations.
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation which will contain problems encountered and recommendations.

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