THE PREVALENCE OF FUNGAL INFECTION AMONG THE PATIENTS

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THE PREVALENCE OF FUNGAL INFECTION AMONG THE PATIENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Candeda: This is a yeast like fungi several of which cause disease in man about 90% of infection are to candida albicans, which is normally present in mouth, intestine and veginal it is responsible for the infection in the sites defense mechanisms (carousal 1990). Candida abbacies usually appears as oval yeast like cell that reproduce by budding however in infected areas. Filamentous hyphare plus pseudolyphae (which consist of elongated yeast cells that remain attached to each other many also be seen the yeast is easily grown at 250c 40 37 0c on sabouraudis glucose agar and if grown on cor a meal agar at 250c the organism can produce many characteristic thick walled chlamydospore Van leeuweuhoed (2 000) candida albicans is measured about 2.5 to 4.0 wm in diameter which can gives rise to pseudomycellun, in the body it has no sexual form the body it has no sexual form in poor medic at  temperature of 2b0c it produces thick wall and resting cells is about 7 to 17 m in test positive in maminaliam serum it has the ability to split urear. it is pathogenic to rabbits. guinea Pig s and  with where it cause abscesses in the kidney when  give intran Veroush (Eleke, 2002).

Oral candidacies oral candidacies also called oral thrush) occurs and most frequently  in the new born and is probably acquired during passage through and infected  vagina the yeast appears as a creamy grade membrane covering the tongue and appears able to produce  disease only  because  of the absence of their resident normal flora (Prescott et al; 1994) if thrush has not occurred by the 3rd day of life it is likely that it will appear but it should occur which will usually  disappear without treatment as other members of the normal flora are acquired.

Oral thrush in order children or Adults may occur as a result  of endocrine disturbance or ceutaninosis (Particularity a deficiency of rib flauin as a complication of diabeta, as a  result of poor oral hyepene or following the administration of corticosteroides or autibutics oral thrush also occur in bottle feed infants which the magnification of my white patches cowering red raw areas of mucous manbrance vanities , vagines cendiass is seen most frequents in women with diabetes, milieus deny pregnamai or following prolonged antibiotic therapy. The prominent symptom is a yellow, milk, veginals discharge yeast cells and pseudo my cell can be found on the mucous membrane and such infections may result in an intense inflammation of the entire ingunal area according to Atlas 199: 13) he state vaginal thrush in pregnant women  are susceptible here with production of whish discharge with a pH below 5.2. Alimentary candidacies. Alimentary candidacies may follow essentially any of the predisposing conditions listed for adult oral thrush; however the majority of cases occur as a result of prolonged broad  spectrum  antibiotics therapy which destoirys a large part of the normal flora of the intestine. The organisms may also cause interse inflammation of the parinal region the region around the arws and may spread to the and thing  coetaneous are systemic candidacies infection of the skin by Candida usually occurs in those with metabolic disorders in those whose obesity result in continuously most tools of skin or in persons in whom part of the body are kept moist under surgical dressings According to Prescott et al (1999, 18)  systemic candidacies is exlvecnely but in debilitated person or those receiving immuno suppresure drugs sandida albicans can cause urinary trait infection endocarditis and meningitis chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is also a rare syndrome in which the skin mucous membranes  hair and nails become infected, such infections appears to occur in persons with T. cell defects manifested by their inability to respond to Candida certigens, in addition to vaging yeast infections the acid environment of the veginal and the proliferation of normal vaginal bacterial limited its  growth when the environment of the vegina changes, situations that change the environment  of the birth control pills. Which often change the vaginal pH or taking bread spectrum cutibioties such as tertiary cline which kills the normal vaginal bacteria in addition, patients with Aids of uncontrolled eddiabetes often develop yeast infections.

1.2  AIM AND OBJECTIVES

To determine the prevalence of fugal infection among the patients of UNTH Enugu

To determine the prevalence of fungal infection among single and married women of different age group patient

To determine the yeast type involved.

To determine the autimicrobial sensitivity pattern of isolates involves.

1.3  SCOPE OF STUDY

This research work is limited to only patients of single and married women of different a group in hematology laboratory in university teaching hospital Enugu. The work was carried out with the use the necessary material such as early morning urine, HVS swab samples which was collected  from those women vaginal

1.4  LIMITATION

In carrying out the research work. It  was so stressful for me in area like buying of my material. I used for my practices that very costly I also went to different markets to get what I want then in carrying out my particle it was not easy for me also the money I was ask  was not enough for due buying of  book s and transporting price that is not steady also I found it very difficult to use university teaching hospital Enugu library  

1.5  STATEMENT OF  PROBLEMS

Candidiasis has caused a lot of problem in our societies this days because of has the nature of the disease look like such as the discomfort it causes to people like itching which causes a lot of embrcincement to people publicly. Secondary the to candidiasis cause frequented urinating people that are suffering from the disease will not found it easy to stay in a public for a long time without beivery disgrace by this infection another problem with this infection is when it stays long in the body it will make the person that is suffering from it to be smelling due to severe discharge.

1.6  SINGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study of this research topic will provide more constructor frame work to formation or creating a way of Eradicating the infection ( candidiasis it also help to educate people the cause and consequence of the infection candidacy. It will also help the communities to know the risk of staring thing that makes people to contact the disease, it will also help to provide precaution measure that will help in preventing the infection.

finally this research work will help to reduce the high rate of the disease occurrence and gives an insight into our communities

1.7  HYPOTHESIS

H0:  The infection (candidiasis) is more prevalent in single women than married women.

H1:  The infection (candidiasis) is more prevalent in married women than in single women.

H2:  Pregnancy is one of the factors that can change the pH or taking broad spectrum antibiotics.

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