HEPATITIS C VIRUS AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIVAIDS ATTENDING CLINIC AT UNTH ITUKUOZALLA.

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 55  |  638 Users found this project useful  |  Price ₦3,000

  DOWNLOAD FULL PROJECT

ABSTRACT

A total of 50 blood (30 pregnant and 20 HIV) samples were obtained from pregnant women and PLWHA attending clinic at UNTH Ituku-ozalla. Samples were screened for hepatitis c viral infection using the rapid one step hepatitis C virus test strip. Two (6.66%) pregnant women were positive and four (20%) HIV patients were positive for Hepatitis C, giving an overall prevalence rate of (26.7%). The infection was the same in male (3) and in female (3). Those aged 23-34 years recorded a higher prevalence of (20%) than those in the age group 19-23. This higher prevalence of hepatitis C suggests that pregnant women and PLWHA may be at risk of hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus. Therefore, routine screening of pregnant women and PLWHA should be instituted for early diagnosis and management of cases.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Hepatitis C infection is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV is one of several viruses that can cause hepatitis. 'Hepatitis' means inflammation of the liver (Ryan and Ray,2004).It is unrelated to the other common hepatitis viruses (for example, hepatitis A or hepatitis B). HCV is a member of the hepaci virus genus in the family Flaviviridae. There are at least six distinctly different strains of the virus which have different genetic profiles (genotypes). In the U. S., genotype 1 is the most common form of HCV. Even within a single genotype there may be some variations (genotype 1a and 1b, for example). Genotyping is important to guide treatment because some viral genotype respond better to therapy than others (Wilkins et al. 2009).

 

According to Hepatitis C NSW (2010), here are some of the things that can happen once the body contract hepatitis C. The body may deal with hepatitis C of its own accord and you may never get sick. About 25% of all people who contract hepatitis C will clear the infection (although this happen less commonly in people with HIV). For a range of reasons, hepatitis C infection is eradicated from the body in these people, usually within 12 months of having been infected.

 

Hepatitis C may remain present in the body. About three quarters of people who contract hepatitis C will be chronically infected. This means that they have detectable hepatitis C virus (measured by a PCR test) in their blood for a period of longer than twelve months. People in this group may be at risk of developing liver problems over time. The genetic diversity of HCV is one reason that it has been difficult to develop an effective vaccine since the vaccine must protect against all genotypes. It is difficult for the human immune system to eliminate HCV from the body, and infection with HCV usually becomes chronic. Over decades, chronic infection with HCV damages the liver and can cause liver failure. Up to 85% of newly-infected people fail to eliminate the virus and become chronically infected. Infection is most commonly detected among people who are 40 to 60 years of age, reflecting the high rates of infection in the 1970s and 1980s. There are 8,000 to 10,000 deaths each year in the U.S. related to HCV infection. HCV infection is the leading cause of liver transplantation in the U.S and is a risk factor for liver cancer.

 

Most of the signs and symptoms of HCV infection relate to the liver. Less commonly, HCV infection causes conditions outside of the liver. Symptoms are generally mild and vague, including a decreased appetite, fatigue, nausea, fever. Headache, muscle or joint pains, and weigh loss. Hepatitis C after many years becomes the primary cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer. About 10–30% of people develop cirrhosis over 30 years (Meisel, et al. 1995). HCV infection can cause the body to produce unusual antibodies called 'cryoglobulins'. These cryoglobulins cause inflammation of the arteries (vasculitis) which may damage the skin, joints, and kidneys. In addition, these patients may develop Raynaud's phenomenon in which the fingers and toes turn color (white, then purple, then red) and become painful at cold temperatures(Iannuzzella, and Vaglio, 2010).

 

Two skin conditions, lichen planus and porphyria cutaneatarda, have been associated with chronic infection with HCV. HCV also is associated with B-cell lymphoma, a cancer of the lymph system. Doctors use various tests to determine if a person has hepatitis C. One type of test measures antibodies in the blood, indicating that a person been exposed to HCV; the two most common antibody tests are called ELISA and RIBA. Viral load tests measure how much HCV genetic material is present in the blood; the two most common viral load tests are called PCR and bDNA.

Who to test for Hepatitis C Virus

According to MMWR (1998) Persons who ever injected illegal drugs, Persons who were ever on chronic (long-term) hemodialysis;

Persons with persistently abnormal alanine aminotransferase level

Persons who were notified that they received blood from a donor who later tested positive for HCV infection;

Persons who received a transfusion of blood or blood components and organ transplant before July 1992; and

Healthcare, emergency medical and public safety workers after needle sticks, or mucosal exposures to HCV-positive blood

Children born to HCV-positive women.

1.2       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

i. To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus in pregnant women attending ante-natal in UNTH Ituku-ozalla.

To determine the age distribution where the infection occurs most.

To determine the prevalence of hepatitis virus in people living with HIV and AIDS attending UNTH Ituku-ozalla.

  DOWNLOAD FULL PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent
Merry From BSU
I am now a graduate because of iprojectmaster.com, God Bless you guys for me.
Excellent
Samuel From Ajayi Crowther University
You guys just made life easier for students. Thanks alot iprojectmaster.com
Excellent
Musa From Ahmadu Bello University
Thank you iprojectmaster for saving my life, please keep it up and may God continue to bless you people.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!