WATER CLEANING TECHNIQUES

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WATER CLEANING TECHNIQUES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Water is of the materials require to sustain life.  It is naturally, available and covers 70% of th earth’s crust.

With the increasing demand of clean, potable water for domestic and industrial use, developing, locating and maintaining a cost-effective water treatment techniques is imperative.

 An obvious and fundamental pollution problem at any location is waste water discharge.  Most waste waters contain sanitary wastes generated by employees at the sites,  streams from kitchen wastes, gutters, sewage, as well as process waste waters.

Sanitary waste water and ground water can be treated satisfactorily by the municipal waste water treatment system.

Separate treatment is also given to industrial process waste water, the contaminants in industrial discharges that ae commonly regulated include total grease (FOG) PH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and certain metals.

Water treatment or cleaning I vital for industrial and technology is to identify any pathagenic organisms, dissolve and undissolved compainds that constitute hazards for the user and develop high quality, cost effective treatment procedures to meat regulated environmental protection agency (EPA), othe water quality contrial agencies – NAFBAC standards and specification.

Water cleaning technology can be grouped into two, namely; Convection and Non-convectional (advance technology).

The convectional technology is the pre or post cliloroination-filteration systems.  The non-convectional or advance technology are the fenton chemistry technique, bio-oxidation system, membrane separation high pressure – centigugal system and ion-exchange system.

In this context, four water cleaning techniques are discussed.   The pre/post chlorination / flocculation, sediment filteration, disinfectation and quality testing.

Fentoris chemistry technique uses hydrogen peroxide and an iron catacyst to destory contaminants.

High pressure – centrifugal system which involve the use of centrigufal force of high pressure to kill pathogens and microbes in a reactor contaning the unclean water.  And membrane technology.

Finally, EPA standards on water quality are recommended.

1.2       SCOPE OF PROJECT

The project – water cleaning techniques is a esearch work to find out different water cleaning or treatment technologies employed in treating waste waters in order to raise its quality to the highest possible level for human conseumption and industry use.

Three different technology are researched here which include pre/post disintectation. – foltration systems, fentou’s chemistry system and hig pressure oxidative combustion.  Centrigufal system EPA water quality standards are also presented.

1.3                         SOURCES OF WASTE WATER        

Wastewater can be gotten through two main sources namely:

·                     Domestic effluent water

·                     Industrial effluent loads

DOMESTIC EFFLUENT WATER

Domestic effluent water ae from hetchen, laundry, cavatory, gutters, stagnant water, contaninted streams, rivers.   They contain both dissolved and undissolved organic and inorganic substances like paper, decayed mater, polymer pieces, detergent, oil & pigments, metal pieces.

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT WATERS

These are wastewater from chemical rpocess industries.  They contain dissolved and undissolved poisonous substances corrosive and obrasive fluid like hydrocarbone, flurolarbous, sulphates, sulphides, cyanides, etc.

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