This study is aimed at given insight into the effects, if any, of television advertisement on the buying habits of consumers. It is a research survey based on a sample size of 300 of Enugu urban dwellers. Careful empirical studies have uncovered or shown that advertising actually influences people’s choice and consumption of some goods and services as well as their buying habits, especially peak milk in can and sachets. Furthermore it has found out that advertising brings a lot of pleasures, amusement, education and entertainment and produce changes that ultimately affects the likes, achievement development of the consumers. Moreover this study will guide the producers and advertisers of understand the beset techniques to reach their prospective consumers. It shows the significance for unique selling appeal and repetition of television messages. The chapter one of this study unfolds the definition of advertising and effect on the buying habits of consumers with relation to a particular medium/television. This study will reveal viewers attitude or acceptance to it. It will also consider television effectiveness or failure in realizing its set objectives. Where the aim is not realized, what are the reason or factors responsible after which findings will be produced to make the study more enough for anybody who may wish to study or carryout related work in future.
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Advertising is defined as a non-personal communication of information usually paid for and it is usually persuasive in nature, about products, services or ideas by identified sponsored through various media. Advertising is a market tool that serve several functions. It identifies and differentiate them from others. It also communicate information about the products, and induces the trail of the new products by new users and suggest repurchasing by existing users to increase product use. It also build brand reference and loyalty etc. According to history the advertising began in the early times when most people could not read and write, the nature of advertising changes from time to time since its origination, perhaps as 400 B.C, until the invention of printing press in about 1436.since then its role has been significantly altered at least twice. Once in response to the industrial and once with the annual of affluent society.
The past world war II era has been marked by growth and television adverts, intense marketing competition and increased attempts to differentiate products through strategies or other techniques. Naturally, advertising is governed by the strategy, the basic message remains the same whether it is in television process, posters or radio. But each medium calls for differing technique and offers its advantages and opportunities. With television you can communicate in both sight and sounds usually in bonus of movement. This is what makes the television so powerful in one particular area that of demonstration. With the coming of commercial television in 1955, we have for the first time III Britain the ability to go right into homes of consumers and demonstrate our products with all the persuasion of door-to door salesmen.
Television as a medium of communication was however not popular in Nigeria before the mid 70s its high cost and was this restricted to the rich. The above situation was changed of the era of oil boom and udoji awards to own a television set at a disposal price. Today, television as a medium of advertising is now very popular as it is now found in almost every home, even in a remote village, so everybody can now have access to usual communication by watching adverts on television, either in their houses or in their neighbor’s house. This enable the manufacturer that advertise his products to be rest assured that the message will get to the target audience.
The effect of television adverts on the buying habit of the consumers, especially peak milk is the thrust of this project from common sense indicates every product has a competing substitute. The effect of television adverts on the buying habits of consumers is the paramount importance to this researcher. Hence television is an effective way of bringing message to consumers because of its characteristics way of combing pictures and sound, they trends to see hear and commenced if not wholly but partly towards a particular advert, such that will convince the target audience, the advertises must understood the complexity of human behavior and the variety of effects on behavior. As advertises become aware of behavioral characetics, they can use those characteristics features to defined new markets and develop advertising campaign for those markets.
Consumers behavior is affected by both internal individual influences include the consumer perception of the world, the world consumers learn and habits they have developed. External individual influences include the consumer family, social structure and culture. The way this influencing factors integrated within the consumer determine how that consumer will behave it. His reaction towards a particular adverts. The incitation of an instance of modern times advertising, It can be said that adverts or practice of adverts is as old as man. One can assume that the first adverts on earth surface is between the serpents Eve and Adam her husband, because Adam and Eve were first victims of the overwhelming power of advertisement in Europe. The oldest method of advertisement used by the early craft man was town crying and signs.
In addition advertising has helped or has been useful to industries [manufactures] by way of helping them to advertise their products, its features and area of location and sales. They build brand preference and royalty. Television adverts had been used to battle against competitors by introducing distinctive contour design. E.g. peak milk used some slogan such as milk as its peak, rich and creamy, contains 28 vitamins and minerals and “instant full cream powered milk. All these have been used to promoted salves of peak milk and which has made people to prefer peak milk and which has made people to prefer milk to other brands e.g. Three crown and cowbell. The new handy packed sachet peak milk is now in the market selling more than any brand of milk. In conclusion advertisement must attract attention, stimulate interest, create desire, inspire conviction and influence action. The copywriter and the visualize work as a team to answer the realization of these objective.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Their has been controversy for sometime about the effectiveness of television as a medium for advertising. There is this belief that commercials in other communication media like the print and radio will effect the behaviour of people more. In a country like America where advertising on television has attained high heights, there is a belief that most people used the time occupied by commercial breaks to go to countries to do other things, meaning that a large number of consumers may not watch T.V commercials. Moreover, there is this feeling that because of the abstract communication method sometimes used in television commercials, people find it difficult to understand the message which they convey. People in certain cases have already formulated attitudes towards certain adverts that can hardly be changed. In such cases that effect of communication or adverts are almost null.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The research deals on if television adverts actually have some effects on the buying to habit of consumers, especially peak milk and to find out if such aim is being realized through product demonstrated in television advertising.
Now I am dealing with the effect of television adverts. It is pertinent to narrow it down to viewers of television in terms positive and negative responses. The purpose of this study is to find out if television adverts aid in gaining initial `adverts attention aid promotes aid products identification to buy the product or not [peak milk] this research is also geared to towards whether televising advert any effects on the buying habit. That is, to identify what actually motivates the consumers in making a choice.
Example is seen when people prefer peak milk to three crown milk and cowbell milk. This will also look into whether some factors like cultural beliefs, personal opinion and recommendation by other in any way influences person’s urge in making choice.
The viewers [target audience] to the television had have to be contained as well. This study will equally assess the level of penetration of television advertising on people of different age groups as income bracket and sex.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
The research will show the need for unique selling appeal and reputation of television messages for a product like peak milk. It will also enable the producers and advertisers of products to understand the best method to reach their prospective consumers and also to know why television advertisement and why it is mostly preferred to other media. There is a serious competition of different products in the market today. It is as a result of different means of advertising in the country. The advertisers are trying their best to see that their products creates awareness through the best means of advertising. The consumer on the other hand seem to be confused as to which medium of communication relays the advertisers messages properly and which of media adverts have effects on them. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out this study to know whether television advertisement really has effects on the buying habit of consumers, advertising people wants adverts made with real human being that are already known that with simple cartoons.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In any research, the research is always aiming at a particular direction to purpose. This is why it is necessary that certain question should be used in this study as other things revolve around the questions.
1 To what extent does television adverts influence the buying habit of consumers on peak milk?
2 Does repetition on adverts create desire on consumers product purchase?
3 Are consumers more likely to remember product seen in television advertisement than any other media of a advertisement?
Answer got will enable researcher find out if actually television adverts do consumers in their choice of products.
HI Television advert have adverse effect on the buying habits of consumers.
Ho Television advert do not effects on the buying habits of consumers.
H2 Repetition of adverts on television do motivates consumers to action .
Ho Repetition of adverts on television do motivate consumers to action.
H3 Consumers remember quite often products seen on television than in any other means of advertisement.
Ho; Consumers do not remember product seen in television adverts often.
1.7 CONCEPT IONAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITON
In this section, the researcher has decided to explain some certain terms which the reader might find confusing and also for easy understanding of the project.
ADVERTISING; Act of making something deliberately known to be people through any of the channel mass communication and persuading them for positive action towards that thing.
TELEVISION ADVERTING; All marketing communication about product or services channel to the public though the television usually by an identified sponsor.
BUYING DECISION; The ability of the consume to conclude to the purchase of a particular product.
INFLUNCE; Power to effect somebody’s or peoples character belief or action through example or powerful presentation.
INTERNAL INFULENCE; These are personal needs and motive of the consumers, his perception, the habit he had developed that influence his behavior.
EXTERNAL INFLUENCE; These are the environmental influence the consumer such as family’s social structure and culture.
The research study has a residence of Enugu urban as focus, to find out the extent television adverts have affected the consumers of peak milk on their buying habits. Enugu urban is considered appropriate for the fact that it has more television viewers than anticipated for this study and which will help the researcher in eliciting the desire information. It also has the desired population expected of people and so the researchers are commenced.
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