1.1 Background to the Study
Radio broadcasting in Nigeria began in 1932 with the introduction of wired broadcasting popularly known as Radio Distribution Service, (RDS). Under this form of broadcasting, programs were relayed or distributed using wires connected to loud speakers installed in the homes of subscribers who had paid a small subscription fee for this system and were also provided with a make shift and home apparatus (Uche,1989). The Lagos studio distributed programs originating from the British Empire Service from Daventry, England as part of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) external service. The increasing popularity of the Radio Distribution Service in Nigeria made it to expand to other stations outside Lagos. This method of broadcasting known as wired broadcasting; by wired wireless; differed from the wireless broadcasting; which is the transmission of programs through radio waves (Electro-magnetic waves).
Radio listenership is an effective way of communication especially in Nigeria. Most people who cannot afford television easily resort to radio as it is the easiest means of getting across to the poor in developing countries (Andre 2007). Radio being usually used by people of the lower class in Nigeria have got a series of pattern through which it is being listened to especially by market women In Akwa Ibom state as necessitated by this study. Mass communication media are made up of print and electronic broadcast media. John witz a famous scholar in mass communication described mass communication as comprising institution and techniques by which specialized groups of people interact, whether knowingly or unconsciously (Dreave 2003). Another school of thought says, it is a process in which communication make use of mechanical media to disseminate information rapidly and continuous to arose intended meaning to a large diverse audience in an attempt to influence them in a variety of ways.
Charles Wright in his own account says, mass communication is a special kind of social communication involving distinctive operative conditions. Primarily among which are; nature of the audience, subject of communication and the experience of the communication” Mass communication, can simply be classified under three (3) categories. We have the T.V and radio production, public relation section and print medium. But this study basically dealt with radio. Radio is one of the most ubiquitous, the most effective and cheapest medium of mass communication available to man. This provided opportunity for men to understand both his immediate and distant environment. Through radio, message or information are received by means of electromagnetic waves hence, the British call it wireless. Music, codes and other communication signals through the waves to any part of the world. With the use of radio, we can communicate across space see and distant points. Like any electronic media radio broadcasting involves the following;
PROCESSES: The first is production of programs, the second is transmission and the third stage is reception. Unlike watching T.V, reading a newspaper, radio listening is usually done by one person alone, it is a personal one-to-one medium and it i also mobile. As a matter of fact, it is generally undisputable that daily and weekly reach of radio exceed other media. In addition, radio brings sense of intimacy and personal involvement between the presenter and the listeners. The audiences of radio are limited only to the elite in the society; it also includes the transporters, the house wives, and market women and so on. As women constitute the bulk in the populace, their role in sustainable development cannot be over emphasized. Their resources have been properly mobilized and channels in order to achieve the desired goals. The women are noted for being custodians of the future.
Nowadays different classes of women exist in Nigeria, the position of women determine how they relate to their various environment one cannot compare the contribution of the less privilege women in the society to the privilege ones. Unlike the olden days where women are regarded as cooks, now, women are also in the top position. They as well participate in politics thy get first-hand information from the mass media by listening to radio watching T.V and reading newspapers and magazines. Consequently, the rate at which the women listen to radio nowadays cannot be underestimated in which they participate in programs mostly the phone-in programs, which are at affect and topical issues in the society. They also love listening to programs.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This is the study of the effect of broadcast media on the society with particular reference on “Radio Listenership Pattern among market women in Akwa-Ibom state” has been decreased to the decline stage and this is due to the shallow knowledge of marketing information strategy by the management. Itam and Akpan Andem market women however, had once encountered this problem where their product faces different challenges in the world market and this is a result of inefficiency of information through of advertisement. As it has been observed that broadcast has help in the upliftment if information in a given society. In the course of the study. It will help the public to receive information, write-ups, and presentation and gather facts from the society, people committees and individual at large. Therefore, the study will look at Radio listenership pattern among Market Women using Itam Market, Akpan Andem women, Uyo as case studies.
1.3 Research Questions
1. Is broadcast media essential to the market women?
2. How has the broadcast media served the market women?
3. Do market women engage in broadcasting media?
4. Is broadcast media the fastest mode of disseminating of information to the market women?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The aim of the research work is to determine radio listenership among market women.
1. To show how broadcast media is a medium by which information is disseminated to market women. It highlights the role of broadcast media to women It highlights how broadcast media services market women interest.
2. To show the public that broadcast is essential to the market women. Relating the effect of broadcast media on the market women.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The finding of the research work will assist radio planners in designing programmes to attain maximum message effectiveness among market women. However, this study will show the duties of broadcast media on the market own, it will examine how broadcast bring dissemination of information to Itam market women in Ibadan and Akpan Andem market women in Uyo.
1.6 Scope of the Study
In this case of carving out of this research the study shall focus majorly on the effect of broadcast and how it see the interest of the market women will be examined. Furthermore, the activities of broadcast media with a paicu1ar reference to the case study shall be discussed too.
1.7 Limitation to the Study
A number of limitation or constraints could be described to the study, either in the course of the data collection on the analysis and scope of the research. The first limitation impose by the scope of the study, in that the study focused mainly on controllable broadcasting organization and used this mainly as the causal factors of the noticeable trend is the sales volume. These second limitation is that the broadcasting was studied in isolation an all observation were thus made disregard to what obtains in the entire Nigeria industries. Finally, the delimitation posed by the dealt indigene listenership pattern test which are often promised on experiences in less complex environment and highly developed economic, with little relevance in some instances to the Nigeria situation and making it difficult in such instances to make very accurate inferences and deduction on market women.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Radio: The activity of broadcasting programs for people to listen to; the programs that are broadcast. Radio is a piece of equipment used for listening to programs that are broadcast to the public. It is a process of sending and receiving message through the air using “ELECTROMAGNETIC” waves. Radio is on electronic device that uses electromagnetic magnetic waves for the transmission of messages, information communication and it possess some attributes which place it upon the television broadcasting. The radio broadcast also involves the communication process i.e. SMCR. In radio broadcasting, there are several methods of categorizing a radio station. Its broadcasting band can assist one to know whether it is an A.M, F.M or S.W.
Market Women: These are people that display goods for sale in a market. These are the people who interpretation for these activities and try to co-ordinate them. In other hand market women getting the right good at the right quantities and qualities to the right people in the right places and at the right time at prices which consumers are able and willing to pay which will yields profit to Seller.
Audience: The group of people who have gathered to watch or listen to something ( a play, concert ,somebody speaking etc.) This is a term that is well understood be media practitioners as those people who are exposed to media message.