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INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY IN NIGERIA, AWARENESS AMONG RADIOGRAPHY STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR
The research work was carried out to assess the awareness level of industrial radiography among radiography students. This research work entails the administration of close ended question of 150 distributed to radiography students. A total of 145 questionnaires were collected.
This work demonstrated the reason why there is poor awareness level of industrial radiography among radiography student in the University of Calabar. The data collected were analyzed and presented in percentages and conclusion was drawn about the subject.
The work shows a distribution of respondent that have heard about industrial radiography and constitute 45%, also that 17% heard about industrial radiography by the use of school library, 34% of the respondent heard about industrial radiography using the media, 49% by friends.
TITLE PAGE- - - - - - - - - --i
CERTIFICATION- - - - - - - - - --ii
DEDICATION- - - - - - - - - --iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT- - - - - - - - --iv
TABLE OF CONTENT- - - - - - - - --v
ABSTRACT- - - - - - - - - - --vi
1.0 INTRODUCTION- - - - - - - -1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY- - - - - -1
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM- - - - - -4
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY- - - - - - -5
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY- - - - - -6
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY- - - - - - - -6
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW- - - - - - --7
2.1 HISTORY OF RADIOGRAPHY- - - - --7
2.2 NATURE OF PENETRATING RADIATION- - - --12
2.2.1 X-RADIATION- - - - - - - --13
2.2.2 BREMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATION- - - - --14
2.2.3 K-SHELL EMISSION- - - - - - --15
2.3 X-RAY GENERATORS- - - - - - --17
2.4 X-RAY MACHINE FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY- --18
2.5 RADIO – ISOTOPES (GAMMA SOURCES)- - --21
2.6 X-RAY GENERATOR OPTIONS - - - - --25
2.6.1 FLASH X-RAY GENERATOR - - - - - --26
2.7 GAMMA SOURCES- - - - - - --27
2.7.1 LINAC (LINEAR ACCELERATION)- - - - --28
2.7.2 COMPONENT OF LINAC- - - - - --29
2.7.3 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION- - - - - --30
2.7.4 ACCELERATING WAVEGUIDE- - - - --31
2.7.5 ELECTRON BEAM TRANSPORT - - - - --33
2.8 IMAGE ACQUISITION- - - - - - --33
2.8.1 FILM MATERIAL- - - - - - - --33
2.8.2 BASIC FILM TYPES- - - - - - --34
2.8.3 DUPLITIZED FILM- - - - - - --35
2.8.4 SINGLE COATED - - - - - - --36
2.8.5 ANTI HALATION- - - - - - - --36
2.8.6 FILM PROCESSING- - - - - - --37
2.8.7 IMAGE ENHANCEMENT AND ANALYSIS- - - --38
2.9 DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY OF PIPE LINE- - - - - - - --41
2.10 RADIOTION MONCTORY DEVICES- - - --44
2.10.1 AREA SURVEY METERS- - - - - - 44
2.10.2 IONIZATION CHAMBERS- - - - - --45
2.10.3 PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS- - - - - --46
2.10.4 NEUTRON AREA SURVEY METERS- - - - --46
2.10.5 INDIVIDUAL MONITORING- - - - - --47
2.10.6 FILM BADGE- - - - - - - --48
2.10.7 THERMO LUMINESCENCE DOSIMETRY BADGE- --48
2.10.8 RADIATION CONTROL AND PRECAUTION- - --49
3.0 METHODOLOGY- - - - - - - - --52
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN- - - - - - - --52
3.2 POPULATION OF STUDY - - - - - - --52
3.3 SAMPLE SIZE AND DATA COLLECTION - - - - --52
3.4 LIMITATION AND SOURCES OF ERROR- - - - --53
4.0 RESULTS- - - - - - - - - -54
4.1 SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC DATA- - - - --54
4.2 LOW EXPERIENCE OF INDUTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY- - --57
4.3 AWARENESS LEVEL OF INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY- --61
5.1 DISCUSSION- - - - - - - - --62
5.2 SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC DATA- - - - - --62
5.3 LOW EXPERIENCE OF INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY.- -64
5.4 AWARENESS LEVEL OF INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY- -65
5.5 CONCLUSION- - - - - - - - --66
5.6 RECOMMENDATION- - - - - - - --67
1.1BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Two of the giant strides in radiography was the discovery of x-ray by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen in 1895 and after which following 3 years, radioactive source (Radium) was discovered by Henry Becquerel. The discovery of these two types of radiation by two scientists gave rise to industrial Radiography.
Industrial radiography has grown out of engineering and is a major element of Non-destructive testing. It is a method of inspecting materials for flaws that are hidden by using the ability of short x-rays and gamma rays to penetrate various materials. Gamma radiation provides immense benefits over lower energy x-rays by allowing penetration of materials which delivering highly detailed images. Additionally, gamma source devices (referred to as “camera”) do not require an electrical supply to operate. The source of gamma radiation are mostly derived from the decay process of 60 cobalt, selenium-75, indium-192 etc. the vast majority of industrial radiography concerns the testing and grading of welds on pressuring piping, pressure vessels, high-capacity storage containers, pipelines and some structural welds, machine parts, plate metal, concrete (Patrick, 2008).
This powerful radiation scrutiny process allows at levels not reached by other non-destruction examination i.e ultrasound. Also, due to the need of highly penetrating radiation, there has been innovation in the manufacturing of x-ray machine with specification that matches the purpose of industrial x-ray production.
Industrial radiography presents immense benefit as it has also evolved from the conventional film recording, the processing procedures to a more state–of-the–art technology of image processing i.e digitization of image, computed radiography , direct radiography. This has aided to improve image acquisition in industrial radiography enhancing the workflow and reducing the cost of film purchasing and processing manually.
In industrial radiography, the implementation and management of a comprehensive safety program aids in covering the risk involved with the practice of industrial radiographic technique, also, the powerful nature of industrial radiography presents unique challenges to those utilizing this non-destructive examination methods to inspect critical components and structures.
State and federal regulations require the use of radiation detection tools when practicing industrial radiography. This safety equipment not only allows tracking and awareness of radiation activity but also provides a vast safety net for all those involved. It is essential to the success of a comprehensive safety program that radiographers maintain properly Calibrated device to use in all testing activities. The use of properly calibrated radiation detection equipment is essential to the safety of the radiographer and public.
Though, film badge is a reliable safety tool in industrial radiography and it gives a significant data reportable which is reliable for audit (Patrick, 2008).
Also, all rules and standards setup during procedures must be strictly adhered to enhance safety of radiation to personal and environment during and after waste dumping (Patrick, 2008).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Since the discovery of x-rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen and radioactivity by Henry Becquerel, the use of x-rays and gamma rays have been applied to the medical profession where it has found itself useful in the diagnosis and in therapeutic to combat disease and in industrial world where it is used in various means of quality assessment and non-destructive testing of metals, crystals, metal and other materials.
In Nigeria, the medical radiography field is the most recognized and acclaimed course in radiography and is most often found in Nigeria Universities compared to it counterpart – industrial radiography, therefore, there is no bearing showing the teaching of industrial radiography in Nigeria by schools that are offering radiography.
This work is aimed at assessing the level of awareness among radiography students.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The main aim of this study is to determine the level of awareness of industrial radiography among medical radiography students.
The specific objectives are:
1. To determine the percentage of radiography students who are aware of industrial radiography.
2. To determine the source of information.
3. To document the usefulness of industrial radiography to our society.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research work will increase the level of awareness among student and also serve as an enlightenment campaign to medical radiography students in University of Calabar.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study is limited to all students, in year 1 to year 5 class in the department of radiography, University of Calabar.
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