AN EVALUATION OF ATTITUDE FORMATION AND CHANGE A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN TELEVISION AUTHORITY

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 
1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Attitudes serve some functions such as knowledge function; here some attitude serves primarily as a means of organizing beliefs about objects or activities such as brands and shopping. These attitudes may be accurate or inaccurate with respect to objective reality but the attitude will often determine subsequent behaviors rather than reality. Value-expressive functions; other attitudes are formed and serve to express an individual’s central value and self-concept. Thus, consumers who value nature and the environments are likely to develop altitudes about product and activities that are consistent with that value. These consumers are likely to express support for environment protection initiatives, to recycle and to purchase and use green products. Utilitarian functions: this function is based on operant conditioning. We tend to form favorable attitudes toward objects and activities that are rewarding and negative attitudes toward those that are not. Marketers frequently promise rewards in advertising and conduct extensive product testing to be sure the product are indeed rewarding. Ego-defensive function: attitudes are often formed and used to defend our egos and images against threats and shortcomings. Products promoted as very much may be viewed favorably by men who are insecure in their masculinity or individuals who feel threatened in social situations may form favorable attitudes toward products and brands that promise success or at least safety in such situations. Any given attitude can perform multiple functions, though one may predominate, marketers need to be aware of the function that attitudes relevant to the purchase and use of their brands fulfill or could fulfill for their target market.
1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The nature of attitude is an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptional and cognitive process with respect to some aspect of our environment. It is a learned pre-disposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object. Thus an attitude is the way customers think feel and act toward some aspect of our environment such as a retail store, television program or product. The implication is that attitude can affect the level of sales and marketing activities of the organization. However the negligence of many organizations in addressing customer attitudes is grossly affecting the level of their sales and marketing growth as well as the growth of the organization. Therefore the problem confronting this research is to proffer an appraisal of attitude formation and change with a case study of the Nigerian Television Authority.
1.3  RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.     What is the nature of attitude formation and change?
2.     What is the significance of attitude formation and change?
3.     What is the nature and significance of attitude formation and change in the Nigeria television authority?  
1.4  OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.     To determine the nature of attitude formation and change.
2.     To determine the significance of attitude formation and change.
3.     To determine the nature and significance of attitude formation and change in the Nigeria television authority.  
1.5  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study shall proffer a structural appraisal of attitude formation and change. It shall elucidate its significance and determine a case study of attitude formation and change in the Nigerian television authority.  
1.6   STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
1.    Ho customer attitude to NTA is low
       Hi customer attitude to NTA is high  
2.    Ho attitude formation and change is not given significant attention in NTA
       Hi attitude formation and change is given significant attention in NTA
3.    Ho effect of customer attitude formation and change is negative in NTA.
       Hi effect of customer attitude formation and change is positive in NTA  
1.7  SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study centers on the evaluation of attitude formation and change with a case study of the Nigerian television authority NTA.  
1.8  DEFINITION OF TERMS
ATTITUDE DEFINED: It is a learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.
KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION: Some attitudes serve primarily as a means of organizing beliefs about objects or activities such as brands and shopping.
VALUE- EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION Other attitudes are formed and serve to express an individual’s central values and self-concept.
UTILITARIAN FUNCTION This function is based on operant conditioning. We tend to form favorable attitudes towards object that are rewarding and negative attitudes towards object that are not.  
EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION: Attitudes are often formed and used to defend our ego’s and images against threats and shortcomings.
SELECTIVE PERCEPTION: The way people interprets information about products, stores and so on affects their attitudes toward them.                                  

REFERENCES

David .C. and Albert .J. (2002) Consumer Behavior New Delhi Del .I. Roger .J. and Kenneth .H. (2001) Consumer Behavoir; Building Marketing          
Strategy New York Edward .J. and William .J. (1963) Fundamentals of Marketing New York
Eric .A. Linda .P. George .Z. (2002) Consumer New York: Micgran Hill James .F. Roger .D. and Paul .W (1990); Consumer Behavior U.S.A the Dryde press

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