WASTE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the study
The generation and disposal of waste is an intrinsic part of any developing or industrial society. Waste, both from domestic and commercial sources has grown significantly in Nigeria over the past decade. Every time a householder shops at the store, and open market he contributes to the mountain of waste. It is possible to quote figures which show that the production of waste amounts to millions of tons. The percent of Nigeria’s population living in cities and urban areas has more than doubled in the last 15 years. The cities and urban areas experience continuous growth which contributes to enormous in generation of solid and liquid waste. The management of waste is a matter of national and international concern. The volume of waste does not actually constitute the problem but the ability or inability of governments, individuals and waste disposal firms to keep up with the task of managing waste and the environment.
There is no doubt that a dirty environment affects the standard of living, aesthetic sensibilities, health of the people and thus the quality of their lives.  The corollary is that improper disposal or storage of this waste can constitute hazards to the society through the pollution of air, land and especially water. In this paper, our attention would be focused on domestic waste. We will highlight some of the problems which have attended the management of this category of waste in Nigeria today. It will be seen that Nigeria has not done well in the direction of tackling the menace of domestic waste. This is even in the face advanced management strategies existing today for domestic waste management which have been adopted in many places. We will proffer suggestions that may assist in addressing this issue that seems to be aborting most efforts of International organizations, the federal government, city authorities, states and professionals alike. The defective strategies and arrangements adopted for solid waste management in Nigerian cities create the erroneous impression that urban waste management problems are intractable. This sterns from the fact that the rate of collection and evacuation perpetually lag behind the rate of generation which makes solid waste accumulation a major source of environmental nuisance in Nigerian cities. Waste management therefore, concerns the interplay among generation, storage, collection and final disposal (Omuta, 1988).
Sada (1984) has observed that in 1980, on the average, a balance of 100 metric tons of solid waste are piled up daily in Benin City. This is because while about 350 metric tons of solid wastes are generated daily, the maximum rate of evacuation achievable was only 250 metric tons daily. Uchegbu (1988) remarked that big cities like Port harcourt, Lagos, Kano, etc in Nigeria produced on the average 46kg of solid waste per person, per day. As living standards rise, people consume more and generate more waste. Right from 1990s Uyo city has metamorphosed into a resort center because of its congenial living environment which attracts an influx of weekend leisure seekers into the city. These leisure seekers merely come into Uyo to relax, consume and enjoy themselves every weekend thus contributing enormously to weekly waste generation in Uyo City. Atuegbu (2007) reports that between 500 and 850 metric tons of waste are generated daily in Uyo city. At Itam market, the rate of waste generation is so high that in one night, a refuse dump site that was cleared the previous day could be replaced with an equal volume of waste the following morning, thus creating the erroneous impression that it was never clear before. The scenario is the same at AkpanAdem market, area of Uyo Metropolis.
1.2            Statement of the problem
Many people in African countries including Nigeria regard the concern for effective strategies for managing waste as a less important issue which may distract attention from the most urgent and serious problem of achieving a fast rate of economic growth. This attitude stems in part from the belief that environmental degradation with waste generation is an inevitable price of development
1.3     Significance of the study
The aim of this paper is to proffer waste management strategies which will effectively address the problems emanating from waste management and Uyo metropolis was used for the study.
1.4            Objectives of the study
The objectives of this research include but not limited to;
1. To know if there are strategies for managing waste generated in Uyo metropolis
2. To determine if there is a significant relationship between waste generation and management strategy.  
1.5     Research questions
In order to achieve the above stated objectives, the following questions were asked;
1. Is there a strategy for managing waste generated in the city of Uyo?
2. What significant relationship exists between waste generation and management strategy?
3. What are the strategies for managing waste generated in Uyo metropolis?
1.6     Research hypotheses
Ho: There are no strategies for managing waste generated inUyo metropolis.
Hi: There are strategies for managing waste generated in Uyo metropolis.
Ho: No significant relationship exists between waste generation and management strategy.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between waste generation and management strategy.  
1.7     Limitations of the study
The study was carried out to investigate the strategies for managing waste generated in a city. The study was limited by two major factors; financial constraint and Time.
1.8     Scope of the study
The study focuses on waste generation and management strategies using the Uyo metropolis as a case study.
1.9     Definition of terms
Waste:This refers to an unwanted or unusable material, substance, or by-product.
Waste Management:This is the collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other waste products.
Waste Management Strategy:This is the process involved in dealing with the waste of humans and organisms, including minimization, handling, processing, storage, recycling, transport, and final disposal.    
REFERENCES  
Adebibu, A.A. (1983) "A comparative Analysis of Solid Waste Composition and generation in lIorin and Offa, Kwara State", Paper presented at the National Conference on Development and the Environment, organized by 4 NISER, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
Agunwamba, J. C. (2001): Waste Engineering and Management Tools. Immaculate Pub.Ltd., Uyo, xii + 578 pp.
Atuegbu, B.C. (2007) "Waste Generation and Management InUyo City, Unpublished B.Sc Project, Department of Geography and Regional Planning, University of Benin, Benin City.
Chukwu, K. E. (2007): “Recycling of used Plastic Products: Its Sanitary and Commercial unpublication in Uyo State” Stakeholders workshop, Converting Waste to Wealth Through Waste Recycling. Uyo State Waste Management Authority, January, 30th – 31st , 2007.
Chukwu, K. E. (2010): Effects of Uyo Urban Environment on the Water Quality of Streams in Nyaba Catchment Area of south Eastern Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis.University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Botkin, B.D and Keller, E.A (19,98), Environmental Science: Earth as a living (2nd edition), John Wiley and Sons Ltd (pub ),New York.
Doxiadis C.A. (1973), Housing for People, Ekistics. Vo1. 36, pp. 331-339.
Ekwueme, M. N. and Achikanu, C. E. (2001): “Solid Waste Management” in Obasikene, J. I., Adinna, E. N. and Uzoechi I. F. A. Man and the Environment. Computer Edge Publishers; pp. 383 – 402.

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