USE OF NIGERIAN PIDGIN ENGLISH IN IPODO AND ALADE MARKETS

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INTRODUCTION

A pidgin is a reduced language that results from extended contact between groups of people with no language in common. It evolves when they need some verbal communication, perhaps for trade but no group learns the native language of any other group for social reasons that may include lack of trust or of close contact. 

A typical definition of any pidgin is invariably in two parts: a reference to its nature/function and a reference to the situations that give rise to it. Thus, Reinecke [1964] tells us that "a minimum or makeshift language [arises] when men of different speech are thrown into contact and must reach an understanding ... " and Todd [1974] defines a pidgin as "a marginal language which arises to fulfill certain restricted communication needs among people who have no common language."

In these two definitions, a pidgin is described as minimal, makeshift or marginal, which suggests that it is not a full language, does not have a long history and is not central to the communicative codes available to its users. It is also claimed in each definition that the kind of situation that gives rise to a pidgin is one in which the people in contact have no language in common.

These rather archaic definitions are supported both by common sense and by practical observation. If people have a language in common, there is no need for them to resort to a makeshift form of communication. On the other hand, it is accepted that a pidgin -like stage probably exists as a universal in the learning or acquisition of a second language, and some scholars now talk of a 'pidginization theory' of second language acquisition. The theory of decreolization, the observation that a pidgin becomes more and more like the language on which it is based (if they exist side by side), also supports the possibility that a pidgin stage is a universal of second language learning.

Inits initial stages, a pidgin is simple in having loose syntactic rules, a narrow and flexible bounded or differentiated vocabulary and phonological component not properly defined, thus its semantic base account for much of its speaker's mutual compatibility.

A language in the making, it necessarily expands from this simple level to a more complex one. There is also the possibility that it would become a different language or another dialect of the' same one from which it is contrived, depending on the similarities in the linguistic backgrounds of pressure brought to bear against its survival by the full developed language.

At some point of its development, such a communication system becomes a pidgin and at a further stage it becomes a Creole. But such maturation is probably merely a function of its speaker's inmate linguistic potentials and subject to a combination of both variable and content factors. Pidgin close impulsively from people's desire to communicate and may as a result, be more or less co-terminus with human history.

Pidgin is said to have been creolized in Sierra Leone and Paupa now Guinea, but in Nigeria there arc varieties of Pidgin English according to different linguistic groups, yet they possess at some points some common features which makes those varieties mutually intelligible. Nigerian Pidgin English consists of vocabulary items from each language used to enhance mutual understanding in communication.

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