1.1 Background of the Study
The influence of audio visual materials in promoting student’s academic achievement and teaching and learning in mathematics cannot be over emphasized. The teaching of geometry in Nigerian junior secondary schools needs to be properly handled. The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the primary and secondary school levels of our education system is incontrovertibly a paramount important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the students. Audio visual are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to students. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola, 2007). Audio visual materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.
Geometry is a subject in mathematics that focuses on the study of shapes, sizes, relative configurations, and spatial properties. Derived from the Greek word meaning "earth measurement," geometry is one of the oldest sciences. It was first formally organized by the Greek mathematician Euclid around 300 BC when he arranged 465 geometric propositions into 13 books, titled 'Elements'. This, however, was not the first-time geometry had been utilized. As a matter of fact, there exists evidence to believe that geometry dates all the way back to 3,000 BC in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt. The West African Examination Council (WAEC) Chief Examiners (2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006) consistently reported candidate’s lack of skills in attempting all the questions asked in general mathematics. WAEC Chief Examiners (2003, 2005) further observed that candidates were weak in geometry of circle and 3-dimensional problems, when they attempt geometry questions: only few of the candidates showed a clear understanding of the problem in their working. Which poses a serious challenge to solving geometry problems in future, and the need to try using audio visual material in teaching the topic.
Obioma (2005), Obodo (2003) and Okereke (2006) reported gender as a significant factor in mathematics achievement and Onwioduokit and Akinbobola (2005) reported it as a significant factor in mathematics performance when mathematics students are taught with advance organizers. However, Okonkwo (2007) reported gender as non-significant when students are taught with tangram puzzle game. Okereke (2006) attributed students’ poor performance to factors such as the society view that mathematics is difficult, shortage of qualified teachers, lack of mathematical teaching aids and lack of incentive. The abstract nature of mathematics should be reduced through demonstration and practical methods. Agwagah (2007) observed that the problem of ineffective teaching can be tackled through planned and intelligent application of the mathematical teaching aids like the audio-visual devise. Thus, Agwagah recommended the use of teaching aids approach to the study of mathematics. The method of drill and verbal recitation makes learning boring and lacks motivation for further learning. Srinivasa (2008) had earlier recommended the use of mathematical teaching aids in teaching mathematics. According to Srinivasa, this will lead the students to formation of concepts out of experiences with discrete objects. In this case the vague theories and imaginary objects take real shape and the students understand better and perform better.
It is important therefore to consider strategies that may help to improve the performance, with the view of considering their effect on teaching and learning of mathematics. Such strategies include the use of mathematical teaching aids (Ogunkunle, 2000). However, Teaching aids are the materials used for effective teaching and enhancing the learning of students. It can be anything ready-made or made by the teacher or made by students. Different teaching aids should be used in teaching mathematics like Charts, Manipulatives, Programmed Learning Material (PLM), computers and television. Studies have shown that secondary school students are exhibiting low interest in mathematics (WAEC 2005). This low interest of students in mathematics has been traced to poor achievement in examinations. In our match towards scientific and technological advancement, we need nothing short of good performance in mathematics at all levels of schooling.
Unfortunately, achievement of students in mathematics at the end of the secondary school has not improved in the last decade (Umoinyang, 1999). Folorunso (2004) has linked poor performance trend in mathematics particularly to the lack of instructional resources in schools due to poor funding of schools. The poor funding of schools has hindered the principals from providing the teachers with adequate instructional resources.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Previous studies reviewed shows that failure rate in mathematics at junior certificate examinations is high. This could be attributed to a number of factors; one of such factors is lack or total absence of audio visual materials. In teaching and learning, audio visual materials play a key role towards concretizing learning. Audio visual materials make learning meaningful and help to improve students’ academic achievement. However, these advantages of audio visual materials have not reflected in the education system because of the dearth of these audio-visual materials in our schools. Hence, the need for alternative audio-visual materials called improvisation.Evidence of poor performance in mathematics by junior secondary school students point to the fact that the most desired technological, scientific and business application of mathematics cannot be sustained. This makes it paramount to seek for a strategy for teaching mathematics that aims at improving its understanding and performance by students. Evidence abound (Srinivasa, 2008; Ogunkunle, 2000), that lack of mathematics teaching aids and Mathematics teachers’ non-use of laboratory technique in teaching mathematics is one of the major factors that contribute to poor achievement in mathematics by secondary school students. Therefore, the study is designed to find out the effects of using audio visual materials in teaching and learning of geometry on the achievement of Junior Secondary School.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of audio visual materials in the teaching and learning of geometry in junior secondary schools in Lagos State. Specifically, the study sought the following;
i) To investigate the impact of audio visual teaching materials on the performance of students in junior secondary schools.
ii) To investigate the extent to which the use of audio visual teaching material will enhance the achievement of mathematics students.
iii) To find out the relationship between the use of teaching aid and students’ performance in mathematics.
1.4 Research Questions
i. What is the impact of audio visual teaching materials on the performance of students in junior secondary schools?
ii. To what extent does the use of audio visual teaching materials enhance the academic achievement of mathematics students?
iii. Is there a relationship between the use of teaching aid and students’ performance in mathematics?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho1: There is no significant impact of audio visual teaching materials on the performance of students in junior secondary schools.
Ho2: The use of audio visual teaching materials does not enhance the academic achievement of mathematics students.
Ho3: There is no relationship between the use of teaching aid and students’ performance in mathematics.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The availability and the use of audio visual materials in teaching and learning have a strong relationship with academic performance of students at the junior secondary school level. However, exploring the best methodology of teaching leading toward effective learning based upon use of teaching aids will provide guidelines to bring improvement in quality of teaching. In this connection the study will be helpful in the following ways: This study will be useful to classroom teachers, curriculum planners, students, researchers and parents. For teachers they will be better informed on how to help and guide their students on better way of producing improvised materials with local resources where standardized materials are unavailable or inadequate. The teachers can also engage students to do some of the illustrations during geometry instructions. This study will help to develop problem solving skill in students and will also help student to be more resourceful during lessons. The study could be beneficial to curriculum planners who would design functional curriculum by taking into considerations student’s teacher’s improvised audio visual materials.
The findings of this study, if discussed in workshops and seminars will guide the choice of improvised audio visual materials used in the teaching/learning process in mathematics and other subject areas. The findings of this study will equally help to alleviate the problem of the scarcity of audio visual materials for mathematics teaching/learning. The results of the study could provide information to researchers interested in working on student-teachers generated improvised materials in other subject areas. This may help them to get more information on the efficacy of improvisation, especially researchers inthe area of science and technology. Parents will be better informed on how to encourage and help their wards to produce improvised materials. This may be in form of sourcing local materials and providing fund for those that cannot be found in their environment.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study is on the influence of audio visual materials in the teaching and learning of geometry in junior secondary schools. This study will be conducted with JSS mathematics students in secondary schools in Oshodi/Isolo Local Government Area, Lagos. However the research has some constraints which are; Time: The time at the disposal of the researcher which is allocated for the study was a major limitation as the researcher has to combine other academic work with the study. Finance: The finance at the disposal of the researcher in the course of the study does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Geometry: Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.
Instructional material: audio visual materials are to be defined as items that are designed to serves as a major tool for assisting in the instruction of a subject or course. These items may be available in bound, unbound, kit or package form and may consist of hard backed or soft backed books, consumables, learning laboratories, slides, films, and filmstrips, recordings, manipulatives, electronics media.
Academic Performance: can be defined as the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goal. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examination or continuous assessment.
Mathematical Teaching Aids: mathematics teaching aids are to be defined as items that are designed to serve as a major tool for assisting in the instruction of a mathematics subject.