THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19) AMONG STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS
1.1 Background to the Study
In December, 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases, who were later proven to be caused by a novel coronavirus (named as “2019-nCoV”), emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. By January 30, 2020, 9692 confirmed cases and 15,238 suspected cases have been reported around 31 prov- inces and cities in China. Among the confirmed cases, 1527 were severe cases, 171 had recovered and been discharged at home, and 213 died. Twenty-eight confirmed cases aged from 1 month to 17 years had been reported in China.
Coronavirus (CoV) belongs to the Coronaviridae family, Nidovirales order. CoVs are divided into four genera: α-, β-, γ-, and δ-coronavirus. α- and β-coronaviruses only infect mammals, whereas γ- and δ-coronaviruses mainly infect birds, with a few infecting mammals. Human CoVs include α-coronaviruses (229E and NL63), β-coronaviruses (OC43 and HKU1), the Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and 2019-nCoV. The 2019-nCoV belongs to the β-coronavirus genus, which includes bat-SARS-like (SL)-CoVZC45, bat- SL-CoVZXC21, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and 2019-nCoV.
Current studies have revealed that 2019-nCoV may originate from wild animals, but the exact origin remains unclear. 2019-nCoV infected patients are the main infection sources. However, we also should attach importance to asymptomatic cases which may play a critical role in the transmission process. Respiratory droplets and contact are the main transmission routes. Close contact with symptomatic cases and asymptomatic cases with silent infection are the main transmission routes of 2019-nCoV infection in children. People of all ages are susceptible to 2019-nCoV. The elderly and those with underlying chronic diseases are more likely to become severe cases. Thus far, all pediatric cases with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection were mild cases, and no deaths had been reported.
For standardizing the prevention and treament of 2019- nCoV infections in children, we called up an experts’ com- mittee to formulate this consensus statement. This statement is based on the Novel Coronavirus Infection Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Standards (the fourth edition) (National Health Committee) and other previous diagnosis and treatment strategies for pediatric virus infections.
Based on the current epidemiological data, the incubation period of 2019-nCoV infections ranges from 1 to 14 days, mostly ranging from 3 to 7 days. Current reported data of pediatric cases revealed that the age of disease onset ranged from 1.5 months to 17 years, most of whom had a close contact with infected cases or were family cluster cases. Infected children might appear asymptomatic or present with fever, dry cough, and fatigue, and few have upper respiratory symptoms including nasal congestion and running nose; some patients presented with gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
Most infected children have mild clinical manifestations. They have no fever or symptoms of pneumonia with a good prognosis. Most of them recover within 1–2 weeks after disease onset. Few may progress to lower respiratory infections. No newborns delivered by 2019-nCoV infected mothers have been detected positive; and no newborn cases have been reported yet. It should be noted that clinical manifestations in pediatric patients should be further defined after collecting more pediat- ric case data. Furthermore, the number of confirmed infected cases will increase after a wide use of pathogen analysis.
Data from adults reveal that severe cases often develop dyspnea one week after disease onset. Severe cases may rap- idly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis, and coagulation dysfunction. Although no deaths in children have been reported up to now, the potential risk of death should be highlighted. Though clinical symptoms in pediatric patients are relatively milder compared with those in adult patients, ARDS and death cases also occurred in infected children during the SARS and MERS epidemics. Differential diagnosis should be made to distinguish from influenza virus, para-influenza virus, adenovirus, respira- tory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, SARS coronavirus, and other known viral infections, as well as mycoplasma pneumoniae and chlamydia pneumo- nia and bacterial pneumonia. The coinfection of 2019-nCoV with other viruses and/or bacteria should be considered in diagnosis. This study seeks to examine the knowledge and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among students of University of Lagos.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Coronavirus disease spreads primarily through contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. It also spreads when a person touches a surface or object that has the virus on it, then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth. Rural dwellers in West Africa are at risk of coronavirus because of proximity to animal reservoir, open construction of African villages, the practice of drying grains by road sides or outside homes and unprotected grain storage within homes. All these factors are known to facilitate increased rodent-man contact or contamination of food sources by infected rodent secretions.
For a highly contagious disease with symptoms and signs that are similar to other endemic diseases, the creation of awareness amongst community members is very important in endemic areas. Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol based rub frequently and not touching your face.
The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow). At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating potential treatments. This study therefore, set out to assess the level of knowledge of coronavirus among students of University of Lagos. Information gathered from this study will serve as a basis for enlightenment of the community on the causes, modes of transmission and more importantly, prevention of the disease.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the knowledge of causes and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among students of University of Lagos. Specifically this study therefore, sought to:
i. determine the awareness of coronavirus among students of University of Lagos.
ii. ascertain the knowledge of transmission, risk factors , symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among students of University of Lagos and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus.
iii. determine the preventive practices against coronavirus among students of University of Lagos.
1.4 Research Questions
The study attempt to answer the following research questions;
i. What is the level of awareness of coronavirus among student of University of Lagos?
ii. What is the level of knowledge of transmission, risk factors , symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of University of Lagos and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus?
iii. What is the preventive practices against coronavirus among student of University of Lagos?
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
The following hypothesis were formulated and tested;
Ho: There is no significant relationship between knowledge of Coronavirus and Socio-demographic Variables.
H1: There is significant relationship between Knowledge of Coronavirus and Socio-demographic Variables.
1.6 Significance Of the Study
The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways. COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment. People who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death.
This study will impact the knowledge of transmission, risk factors, symptoms and prevention of coronavirus among student of University of Lagos and the factors associated with knowledge of coronavirus.
1.7 Scope/Limitation Of Study
This study seeks to examine the knowledge of causes and prevention of coronavirus (Corvid-19) among students. It is delimited to students of University of Lagos and its environs.
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