POLLUTION PROBLEMS AND AN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

Format: MS WORD  |  Chapter: 1-5  |  Pages: 65  |  603 Users found this project useful  |  Price ₦3,000

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

POLLUTION PROBLEMS AND AN ENGINEERING APPROACH TO THE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background to the Study

Water is life and the quality and adequacy of water is an essential measure of the quality of life or rather the existence of life. Consequently water quality management is (or should be) one of the most important activities of mankind, so as to protect and save human life. The management of water quality, or the protection of the aquatic ecosystem in a broader sense, means the control of pollution. Water pollution originates from point and non-point (diffuse) sources and is mostly anthropogenic activities.

A crucial aspect in the series of complex activities of planning and implementing water pollution control actions is the quantitative determination and description of the relationship between human activities and the state of the aquatic system. These activities are essential for the modelling of aquatic systems (hydrological, hydrodynamics, hydraulic, and water quality modelling) (Jolankai, 1997).

Planning and management activities require the assessment of hydraulic and water quality conditions often beyond the range of observed field data. In this context, both hydraulic and water quality models need be made that are general enough to (1) describe observed conditions and (2) predict planning scenarios that may be substantially different from observed conditions. In stream water pollution control the main objective is to assess if the system complies with the maximum pollutant release allowed from point and non-point source pollution, so that pollutant levels in the receiving streams meet water quality standards. Water quality models for in - stream water pollution control have been calibrated and verified with data collected prior to model development during surveys designed to check basin wide water quality for regulatory compliance (Radwan et al, 2003).

1.2    Statement of the Problem

A lot of environmental degradation is generated during the planning, developmental stage including construction and final occupation of engineering projects.

The problems include deforestation, land and water pollution, and contamination of ground water, poor environmental sanitation, poorly planned road network, air and noise pollution, destruction of natural food chain, toxicity and radioactivity within the eco-system, etc. Others are:

-        Rapidly increasing generation of industrial effluents and discharge into the available water courses

-        Increasing difficulty of industries to comply and meet regional and national water quality standards and limits

-        Increasing occurrence of water- borne diseases as a result of pollutions from indiscriminate industrial effluents discharge into water courses

-        Deterioration of water quality standards and its effects on water supply, aquatic ecosystems and public health due to river pollution in populated areas

-        Service delivery standards: Many existing national environmental standards and environmental management practices are based on those developed in industrialized countries, under conditions totally different from those existing in developing countries.

These standards are often inappropriate, even where they are in theory appropriate they often cannot be applied due to high cost.

1.3    Aims of the Research

The aims of this research include the:

i.            Determination of the dilution power and self- recovery ability of a purposively selected river in Ado-Odo/Otta District after receiving industrial effluents, and

ii.             Assessment of the industrial waste management capability of the treatment facilities of selected industries.

1.4      Specific Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of this study are to:

1.      Characterize selected industrial effluents and determine their impacts on a purposively selected receiving water courses;

2.      Use an existing model to determine the ability of the selected receiving stream to recover from the environmental impacts of the industrial activities, and

3.      Determine the treatability of the effluents and recommend an engineering solution to the impacts.

1.5    Justification for the Research

Existing literature showed that there has been no detailed scientific and engineering study of industrial impact on the rivers in Ado-Odo/Otta Industrial Zones. Presently there exists a global focus on sustainable consumption and production activities by industries. There is the need therefore to determine conformity by the industries with the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) of Nigeria other national and international regulations.

The findings of this work will be useful to Engineers in the design and management of industrial wastes.

1.6      Scope of the Study

i.            The scope of this study was limited to a field survey of selected industries which discharges industrial effluents into River Atuwara.

ii.             Laboratory scale modelling of the pollution impacts, using QUAL2K developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), to determine the hydrodynamics and water quality of the receiving river; and

iii.             Laboratory bench - scale treatability study and analysis of the identified pollutants of concerns in the effluents from the selected industries

1.7      Delimitation of the Study

The study covered River Atuwara in Otta Municipal Districts. The major polluting industries in the industrial layouts will be determined in the three major industrial areas in Otta viz: Idiroko road, Ijoko road and Lagos-Abeokuta expressway. A model to simulate one-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality parameters of the receiving streams will be examined.

1.8      Operational Definition of Terms

Industrial pollution: is a very broad category of pollution resulting from manufacturing activities. Industrial pollution can be in the form of air pollution, water pollution or solid and hazardous wastes.

Industrial wastes: industrial and radioactive waste from chemical plants and nuclear power plants includes potentially dangerous substances such as petro-chloro-benzene (PCBs), tributylin (TBT), organo-chlorides, heavy metals (HMs), acidic wastes, radioactive caesium and plutonium 239,(Falconer ,1990).

Industrial effluent: These are partially treated or untreated wastewater discharges from industries. It is normally unacceptable to discharge untreated industrial wastewater direct to rivers, land or disposal down mineshafts wells etc. Gaseous discharges from stacks are also part of industrial effluent.

Industrial wastewater management: This is the process that ensures the minimization of wastewater production for recovery and reuse. The recovery and reuse of wastewater in an economic way enable the cost of wastewater treatment to be minimized. The options for the industrialist are: (1) to treat or partially treat at source within the site;(2) treat at a centralized works effluents plant within the industrial complex or (3) discharge the wastewater to a sewer and pay for off site treatment.

Water quality: a term used to describe the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water, usually in respect to its suitability for a particular purpose.

Mathematical model: Mathematical models are useful instruments in the survey of computer systems. It is not possible to survey the many components and their reactions in an ecological system without the use of mathematical models as synthesis tool. Mathematical models can be used to reveal dynamic system properties. They revealed gaps in knowledge on ecological systems and can therefore be used to set up research priorities as an idealized formulation that represents the response of a physical system to external stimuli.

GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT

Not What You Are Looking For?



For QUICK Help Call Us Now!

+234 813 292 6373


Here's what our amazing customers are saying

JONNAH EHIS
Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo
I was scared at first when I saw your website but I decided to risk my last 3k and surprisingly I got my complete project in my email box instantly. This is so nice!!!
Excellent
MATTHEW NGBEDE
Ahmadu Bello University
I wish I knew you guys when I wrote my first degree project, it took so much time and effort then. Now, with just a click of a button, I got my complete project in less than 15 minutes. You guys are too amazing!
Excellent
Temitayo Ayodele
Obafemi Awolowo University
My friend told me about iprojectmaster website, I doubted her until I saw her download her full project instantly, I tried mine too and got it instantly, right now, am telling everyone in my school about iprojectmaster.com, no one has to suffer any more writing their project. Thank you for making life easy for me and my fellow students... Keep up the good work
Very Good
Stancy M
Abia State University, Uturu
I did not see my project topic on your website so I decided to call your customer care number, the attention I got was epic! I got help from the beginning to the end of my project in just 3 days, they even taught me how to defend my project and I got a 'B' at the end. Thank you so much iprojectmaster, infact, I owe my graduating well today to you guys...
Excellent
Ibrahim Muhammad Muhammad
Usmanu danfodiyo university, sokoto
It's a site that give researcher student's to gain access work,easier,affordable and understandable. I appreciate the iproject master teams for making my project work fast and available .I will surely,recommend this site to my friends.thanks a lot..!
Excellent
Dau Mohammed Kabiru
Kaduna State College of Education Gidan Waya
This is my first time..Your service is superb. But because I was pressed for time, I became jittery when I did not receive feedbackd. I will do more business with you and I will recommend you to my friends. Thank you.
Very Good
Joseph M. Yohanna
Thanks a lot, am really grateful and will surely tell my friends about your website.
Excellent
Merry From BSU
I am now a graduate because of iprojectmaster.com, God Bless you guys for me.
Excellent
Samuel From Ajayi Crowther University
You guys just made life easier for students. Thanks alot iprojectmaster.com
Excellent
Musa From Ahmadu Bello University
Thank you iprojectmaster for saving my life, please keep it up and may God continue to bless you people.
Excellent

HOW TO GET YOUR COMPLETE PROJECT INSTANTLY

  • Select 3 Project Topics of your choice from your Department.
  • Submit the 3 topics to your Supervisor for Approval.
  • Call Our Instant Help Desk on 0813-292-6373 and Get Your Complete Project Material Instantly.
  • All project materials on this website are well researched by professionals with high level of professionalism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

How do i choose a Project Topic?

Look for your department and select any topic of your choice

I have a fresh topic that is not on your website. How do I go about it?

How fast can i get a complete project from your website?

Within 15 minutes if the exact project topic is on our website

Is it a complete research project or just materials?

It is a Complete Research Project i.e Chapters 1-5, Abstract, Table of Contents, Full References, Questionnaires / Secondary Data

One of your topics suites my project, but the case study is different. What do i do?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

How do i get my complete project?

Your Complete Project Material will be sent to your Email Address in Ms Word document format

Can I get my Complete Project through WhatsApp?

Yes! We can send your Complete Research Project to your WhatsApp Number

What if my Project Supervisor made some changes to a topic i picked from your website?

Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

Do you assist students with Assignment and Project Proposal?

Yes! Call Our Instant Help Desk Now: (+234) 813-292-6373 and you will be responded to immediately

What if i do not have any project topic idea at all?

Smiles! We've Got You Covered. Chat with us on WhatsApp Now to Get Instant Help: (+234) 813-292-6373

How can i trust this site?

We are well aware of fraudulent activities that have been happening on the internet. It is regrettable, but hopefully declining. However, we wish to reinstate to our esteemed clients that we are genuine and duly registered with the Corporate Affairs Commission as "PRIMEDGE TECHNOLOGY". This site runs on Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), therefore all transactions on this site are HIGHLY secure and safe!