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| Chapter: 1-5
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CONSTRUCTION OF READING TABLE AND A CHAIR
The table constructed has a horizontal top with vertical support or legs to raise it from the ground. The aim of the table constructed is for the preservation and storage of useful materials like books, files, computers, result booklets, electronics, office equipments and some vital home equipment etc.
However, before the construction of the table, selection of wooden materials were carried out for long and lasting durability of the table. Mahogamy wood was selected for the construction. Marking out sawing and dimensioning operation was also carried out in order to obtain the required standard shape and size of the table (48” X 24” X 30”) for length, width and hight respectively.
The divided parts was fixed together appropriately and nailed. Then sand papering was carried out in other to make it surface smooth. Spraying and painting was the next operation which carried out to achieve a polished surface. The result obtained after construction was ninety-five percent (95%) compared to the result from literature review and further investigation. The wood use for construction has good workability, durability and can withstand any attacks from fungi harmful insects and bacterial infections
Finally, the table constructed is fitable and convenient for every home, office, industrial, hospital and further utilizations.
The need for table comes only second to the need for seats in out door furniture. They will vary from permanent structures attached to the ground and of sufficient size for many people to enjoy meals, to smaller tables that can be moved to others, which may be folded and stowed away.
Folding tables are described as one of the type of table. Within the other categories exist a vest number of designs, the primary need is a flat top at a suitable height from the floor. It is in the means of support that designs vary.
Table tops for use indoors are always without gaps. If boards have to make-up a width, they are joined tightly edge-to-edge. Sometimes such a closed top is needed out doors, but in many cases the top is made of many boards with gaps between. One advantage of this is in shedding rain water more easily, the gaps should no be too wide or there will be difficulty when a cloth is spread over and cutlery and other small items process the cloth into gaps.
For normal use, the gaps should not exceed ½ inch (although there are many table in use with wider spaces). A table should stand firmly, the ideal arrangement for stability is three legs that will not wobble, no matter how uneven the ground. For most tables, it is preferable to have four legs to give support near each corner.
The spread of legs on the floor is greater than the spread of most chair legs. This aids in finding a level stand if the support are not individual legs, but there are broad surfaces at the bottom. It is always advisable to thicken at the corners to provide feet (As in the first example).
Be careful to brace against diagonal or side ways loads, as well as those pressing directly downward. There must be enough stiffness in the joints. If the top and any shelf arte firmly attached, they also serve as stiffness, but if it is a table where someone will be sitting on a chair with their legs underneath, the rails have to be kept out of their way.
The end rails support a shelf of slats for enough in so as not to interferes with a sitter legs at the side. Chairs are often made to match tables. Using generally similar layouts and construction, so there is a balanced appearance when several chairs are grouped around a table. Some seats for more than one person can be made to match as well.
Assess your probable needs and keep in mind a general pattern, even if you are only making one chair at first. If chair are made from prepared wood, stock size of sections can be less than specified, because the quoted size is before us machine planed. For example, you will find that 2x3 inches quoted is actually not much more than 1 ¾ inches finished.
Allow for it during making out, mark form the actual pieces of wood, rather than rely on measurements for widths of cuts. To obtain a better quality chairs and table galvanized nails are preferable which had good resistance to corrosion attack. Iron screw should also be protected effectively.
Finally, wood also has good mechanical properties, thermal properties, electrical properties, Acoustical properties and high density and specific gravity which contribute primarily to high durability and workability characteristics during and after constructional operation.
Constructional procedures means all the various steps taken during the construction of the project. The above named project topic was constructed at the carpentry workshop.
The constructional procedures are as follows: selections of materials of construction, sketching and drawing, making out and cutting operation, creation of mortise and tendon, dressing, assembling and joining, sand-papering and finally spraying and painting.
SELECTION OF MATERIALS
The first and foremost thing was to select constructional materials needed for construction. Then mahagony wood was selected due to it properties and characteristics during and after construction, gum, point, white glue, Glossy material, galvanized nails, sand paper and sandy-sealer.
2” x 3” x 12” Mahagony wood = 1
1” x 12” x 12” Mahagony wood = 1 (Plank)
one sheet of ¾ ply wood.
½ sheet of ¼ ply wood.
21bw of 1 ½ wire nail.
One pair of hinges
One fin white glue and one gallon of spraying material (stain)
One gallon glossy paint
½ gallon of thinner
3/6 yard of sand-paper.
½ gallon of sandy-sealer.
SKETCHING AND DRAMING
The table to be constructed was represented in an isometric drawing on a drawing sheet using a pair of pencil, meter rule, and other drawing equipments. The drawing was dimensioned which help to know how the table would look like after construction.
MARKING OUT AND CUTTING
Drawing, the dimension was used to marked out and cutting the dimensional parts was done into their respective sections. The dimension parts are as follows:
The table:- Top (cover) is 48” x 24” x 1 ½ “ length, width and thickness respectively.
Dimension of parts for two legs framed at right side of the table are 29” x 22” x 1 ¾ for length, width and thickness respectively.
Dimension of the connecting rails that connects the two vertical legs at the right side of the table are 1” x 3” x 19” for thickness, width and length respectively.
Dimension of the connecting rails that connects the drawer case and the frame legs at right side of the table are 1” x 3” x 42” for the thickness, width, and length respectively.
Dimension of the parts where the drawer were fitted are ¾ “ x 23” x 22” for thickness, length and width respectively.
Creation of mortise and tendon:-
Mortise are space hallowed out in a timber (wood) to received a tendon or it is a hole into which something of corresponding shape is to be fitted.
Tendon are parts created on a wood to enter into a mortise and correspond with it, these was done by using a pair of tape, chisel and tendon saw.
Dressing: After the creation of tendon and mortise, jack plan was used to dress the area that required dressing to achieve smoothness of dimensioned edges.
ASSEMBLING AND JOINING OPERATION:
However, the mortise and tendons which was created on the legs and rails was joined together. In order to get the frame work using try will look like. Then the frame work was nailed together including the top of the table and the necessary parts that make up the table was friends properly.
SAND PAPERING: After the assembling of the table, the entire surface of table was sand papered mother to obtain a smooth surface for easy spraying and point.
SPRAYING AND PAINTING: Finally, the constructed table was sprayed to bring out it esthetical nature using compressor machine with spraying materials. Then the table was allowed to dry, tad was ready for use.
Finally, following all the procedures read from literature review and further investigations made, the table constructed can be compared to the standard table and chair. The table constructed is ninety five percent (95%) compared to the standard structure and it is fit to withstand any environmental conditions.
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