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EFFECT AND EVALUATION OF LEADERSHIP STYLES AND ITS EFFICIENCY
Emphasis on leadership style and its effect has been a topic for regular discussion on the electronic media and newspaper by various government and academicians.
The peace and unity of the nation and organization is not cordial. It is common to hear of coups and strike due to leadership style.
Leadership style are democratic; autocratic and laissez fair leadership style. The leadership style used organizations tend to shape the behaviour of followers. Government has in various ways encouraged a good leadership and at the same time frowns at what could be termed bad leadership style. This is because good leadership style brings about cordial relationship between the leadership and their followers at the national level. It increases productivity and for satisfaction in a organization and overall economy.
The purpose of this research therefore is to know the effect and evaluation of leadership styles and its efficiency in some selected organization in Enugu state (Emenite Nigeria PLC).
Moreso, it is the intention of the researcher to provide a document which will satisfy the academic requirement of the Institute of Management and Technology Enugu for the award of Ordinary National Diploma (OND) and also serve as a guide to Government and organization that may wish to enjoy good industrial and human relation.
Furthermore, the evaluation of leadership style will strive to identify the best style of leadership that will improve attitude of the followers.
Finally, the recommendation to both the organization followers and government should increase their campaign for good leadership style.
1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYING
Leadership means different things to different people. People speak of an authors or artists leadership in his field, meaning his individual eminence. Others describe leaders as those who dominate and command people under them. Many yet believe that anybody in a position of authority bears the title leader.
According to Ordway Tead (1995) leadership is defined as the activities of influencing people to co-operate towards some goal; which they come to find desirable. Real leaders are interested on how people can be brought to work together for a common and efficiently and happily.
Moreso, leading is the element of management that inputs others to action. (Nkweke Uche 1997) It is one of the essential functions that must be performed by all supervisors and executives. That is by all who direct the work of other people. Leading of all the key functions of management, planning, organizing, staffing, controlling etc is one of the most difficult to understand, acquire and evaluate. For Centuries schools have been speculating on the nature of leadership, yet only in recent years have researchers conducted systematic investigation that yielded useful insights into the dimensions of leadership.
Furthermore, leadership is an aged area of managerial responsibility that is needed to develop plan, set objectives that help the organization co-operate in the future and to meet the demand of the environment as in Emenite Nigeria PLC. Their leadership is paramount and important for the survival and growth of the organization; which consequently makes it substantial to fund a brain leader.
As the organization grows, the expectation on their performance increases as well as the demand for leadership. The technical, economical, social and political characteristics of the organization, brings about conformity need for the innovations, creating and imagination of a leader. People capable of exercising effective leadership in the organization are scarce relative to the needs for them. Leadership ability therefore is a valuable skill and those who posses or have it reap high rewards.
Leadership is defined as a process where by one person exerts social influence over members of a group; it is the ability of individual to influence others to work beyond ordinary level to achieve a desired goal or objectives. A group of leadership theorists lead by fred fieldes in their contingency mode of leadership see leadership as influencing people as that they will strive willingly towards achieving the group goal. This concept can be encouraged in imply not only willingness to work, but also willingness and zeal to trust their leader.
Leadership has effect on the performances of any organization; it affects both follower attitude and efficiency of the organization. Followers at these level stand to evaluate their jobs and their organization according to the kind of leadership behaviour their bosses exhibit for a leader to lead efficiently; he has to understand his subordinates and the situation in the organization. The solution variable which influence the efficiency of a given leadership style is characterized by the follower and the task, organization climate power available to the leader and follower relationship. The important researches by Fred Fielders, Koontz Likert and others have helped to uncover the styles and situational variables stating that a situation in which a leader find himself determines his leadership style and that group or team work is important for an efficient leadership.
We can therefore say that since leadership is the element of management that impels others to action, the survival of every organization depends on the performance of its leaders. Thus, the search for a definite solution to problems of leadership efficiency in an organization and the best possible leadership style employed to increase the followers moral, has proved to be endless pursuit of organizational theories. Research findings however, suggest that leadership efficiency is not depending on the source of power alone but with situational factors, climate or any particular styles. From the foregoing therefore, the question is how efficient is the leadership style in bringing about a good relationship and reaction of followers towards organizational work and efficiency. It is the aim of this feasibility study to give solution to the question.
1.2 PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUBJECT MATTER
As earlier said that one of the most researched and least understood variables of management process is that of leadership. For centuries scholars have been speculating on the motive of leadership.
Thus the research after watching the on going systems in many organizations with concern towards leadership, the way supervisors handle their method of supervision in an organization, decided to embark on the work to examine the style of leadership and how its effects the attitudes of the followers with a special interest on Emenite Nig. PLC. Located in Enugu State.
The researcher arrived at the following problems associated with the leadership styles as practiced in Emenite Nigeria P.L.C. These problems among others include;
I. The poor relationship between leaders and subordinates. Very few leaders in Nigeria carry their followers along with them. The get rich quick syndrom, political lineage, race, religion etc. do not allow many of the leaders to carry their subordinates along with them, in their day to day leadership activities. This problem may result in transfer, demotion or sacking of qualified subordinates simply because they are not in good terms with them (leaders).
II. Quality of Performance: Where tasks are better spelt out the quality of output or performance can be more easily held responsible for performance than where task are not. In Nigerian organizations, especially in political appointments, task structure or quality of performance is not a matter of concern. What is paramount is interest protection, some leaders do not even know what they are supposed to be doing and even when they know, they do not know the extent or deliberately cross boundaries. This is why many of our public institutions cannot even pay their salaries from their own treasury.
III. Problem of exploitative authority: This has posed a problem because many of our leaders think that if they encourage their subordinates to climb the organizational ladder, they will be pushed out of the organization, either that the leader is not there with the right qualification, or that he is there to protect the owners.
1.3 THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING THE AREA
This research will be of paramount important basically for groups such as the organization under study i.e. Emenite Nigeria plc, other related organizations, the readers, future researchers and the researcher himself. It will help the organization under study as a corrective device after the areas of deficiency has been highlighted, with regards to their leadership styles. For related organization such as Emenite Nigeria plc, Sapele with related problems of leadership position, to be aware of the type or style to embark on in any situation they are facing. This work will serve as a secondary data to further research on leadership systems as it concerns any organization.
Finally, this work is of importance to the researcher in the following ways:
i. It will enable him to know more about the selected organization i.e. Emenite Nigeria plc.
ii. It will help him in finding out the most efficient leadership style so that he will apply it when he occupies a leadership position in the society.
1.4 DEFINITION OF IMPORTANT TERMS
i. FEASIBILITY STUDY: This is a project which aims at knowing whether a scheme can succeed or will be acceptable or not. This nature of project is to evaluate, thus the objective is to draw conclusion on the basis of a known criteria.
ii. MANAGEMENT: This is the employment application of both human and material resources to achieve the objectives of an organization in the most economic way.
iii. ORGANIZATION OBJECTIVES: This is a management term answers the following questions, what is to be done, who is to do it and the nations that going to take place? When are the actions going to take place? It also means the goals of an organization.
iv. SECONDARY DATA: These are data obtained second hand from published or recorded sources and used for a purpose different from that of the agency that initially collected and published the data.
v. SUBORDINATES: These are people of lower ranks in an organization.
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