AN APPRAISAL OF THE NATURE AND EFFECT OF MORAL DEVELOPEMENT AND REASONING

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
MORAL   reasoning  refers to the reasoning process by which human behavior, institution s or policies are judged to be in accordance with or in violation of moral standards. Moral reasoning always involves two essential components;
An understanding of what reasonable moral standards require, prohibits, value or condem;Evidence or information that shows that a particular person, policy, institution, or behavior has the kinds of features that these moral standards require, prohibits, value or condem.
In many cases , one or more of the three components involved in a persons moral reasoning are not expressed. More often than not people
Will fail to make explicit the moral standards on which their moral judgements are based. The main reason that moral standards are often not made explicit is that they are generally presumed to be obvious. People put more of their efforts into producing evidence that a given policy, institution or action conforms to, or violates their unexpressed standards than they put identifying or explaining the moral standards on which their judgementsrely.Failure to make ones moral standards explicit leaves one vulnerable to all the problems created by basing critical decision on unexamined assumptions.The assumptions may be inconsistent,they may have no rational basis and they may  lead the decision maker into unwittingly making decision with undesirable consequences.
The research therefore  seek to provide an appraisal of the nature and effect of moral development and reasoning
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
 A great deal of psychological research as well asones own personal experience, demonstrate that as people mature they change their values in very deep and profound ways.Just as peoples physical,
Emotional, and cognitive ablilitiesdevelopes as they age so also their ability to deal with moral issues developes as they move through their lives. Infact ,just as there are identifiable stages of growth in the physical development so the ability to make reasoned moral judgements also develop in identifiable stages.
MORAL   reasoning  refers to the reasoning process by which human behavior, institution s or policies are judged to be in accordance with or in violation of moral standards. Moral reasoning always involves two essential components;
An understanding of what reasonable moral standards require, prohibits, value or condem;Evidence or information that shows that a particular person, policy, institution, or behavior has the kinds of features that these moral standards require, prohibits, value or condem.
Studies shows that as a child and during the adolescent period ,we internalize moral values  transferred to us by our parents, friends or group. It is only as rational  and experienced adults that we acquire the capacity to critically reflect on the conventional moral standards bequeathed to us by our families, peers, culture, or religion.We then begin to rationally evaluate these moral standards and their consequences and to revised them where they are inadequate,inconsistent, or unreasonable. We begin to do ethics and our morality now increasingly consists of Moral standard that are more impartial and that take account of the interest of others or that more adequately balance taking care of othersWith taking care of ourselves.The inability to understand and identify moral standards as well as  possess moral reasoning is a set back to making decisions that are judged to 
be of moral standard .
Therefore the problem confronting this research is to provide an appraisal of the nature and impact of moral development and reasoning
With a case study of selected  students of the federal university of technology akure.
1.3    RESEARCH QUESTION
What is the nature  and effect of moral  development and reasoning 
What is the nature  and effect of moral development and reasoning of selected students of the federal university of technology Akure
1.4       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1 To determine the nature and effect of moral development and reasoning
2 To determine the nature and effect of moral development and reasoning of selected students of the federal university of technology akure
1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is  significant in determining the importance of maturity in decision making that have moral  standards and implications.
 As moral development evolve through stages and that It is only as rational  and experienced adults that we acquire the capacity to critically reflect on the conventional moral standards bequeathed to us by our families, peers, culture, or religion.We then begin to rationally evaluate these moral standards and their consequences
And to revised them where they are inadequate,inconsistent, or unreasonable. We begin to do ethics and our morality now increasingly consists of 
Moral standard that are more impartial and that take account of the interest of others or that more adequately balance taking care of others
With taking care of ourselves.

1.6        STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS
1      Ho     moral development and reasoning of selected students of federal university of technology Akure is low
        Hi     moral development and reasoning of selected students of federal university of technology Akureis  high
2     Ho    Quality of decisions of selected students in federal university of technology akure is low
      Hi   Quality of decisions of selected students in federal university of technology akure is low
3   Ho    The impact of moral development and reasoning on selected students of federal university  of technology akure  is low
     Hi    The impact of moral development and reasoning on selected students of federal university  of technology akure  is high
1.7    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study profersan appraisal of the nature and effect of moral development and reasoning  , it analyses the nature of  moral development and moral reasoning and elucidates on its significance. It  provides a case study on selected students of the federal university of technology  akure to determine their
Moral development and reasoning and the effect it has on their quality of decisions.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MORAL DEVELOPMENT DEFINED
A great deal of psychological research as well as ones  own personal experience, demonstrate that as people mature they change their values in very deep and profound ways.Just as peoples physical, Emotional, and cognitive ablilitiesdevelopes as they age so also their ability to deal with moral issues developes as they move through their lives. Infact ,just as there are identifiable stages of growth in the physical development so the ability to make reasoned moral judgements also develop in identifiable stages. moral development evolve through stages and that  It is only as rational  and experienced adults that we acquire the capacity to critically reflect on the conventional moral standards bequeathed to us by our families, peers, culture, or religion.We then begin to rationally evaluate these moral standards and their consequences
And to revised them where they are inadequate,inconsistent, or unreasonable. We begin to do ethics and our morality now increasingly consists of 
Moral standard that are more impartial and that take account of the interest of others or that more adequately balance taking care of others
With taking care of ourselves.
MORAL  REASONNING   DEFINED
MORAL   reasoning  refers to the reasoning process by which human behavior, institution s or policies are judged to be in accordance with or in violation of moral standards. Moral reasoning always involves two essential components;An understanding of what reasonable moral standards require, prohibits, value or condem;Evidence or information that shows that a particular person, policy, institution, or behavior has the kinds of features that these moral standards require, prohibits, value or condem.

ETHICS DEFINED
Ethics refers to the principles of and standard of moral behavior that are accepted by society as right versus wrong. To make the right choice, or at least the best choice from among competing alternatives, individuals must think through the consequences of their actions. Ethics can be defined as a set of 
Principles of right conduct.it can also be defined as a theory or a system of moral values.Business ethics is the the application of moral standards to business situations.

MORALITY
Morality is defined as the standard s that an individual or group has about what is right and wrong or good and evil

BUSINESS
Business is an any activities that involves the production ,buying ,selling and exchange of goods and services of a commercial and economic nature to satisfy customer needs and make profit.

CODE OF CONDUCT
A code of conduct is a written  statement  setting forth the principles that guide an organisations decision

Stake holder
A stake holder is any group or individual who can affect  it or is affected by it.

LEGITIMACY
LEGITIMACY is defined as a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions

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