BUDGETING AS A TOOL FOR PLANNING AND CONTROL IN A MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY    
Business organizations need planning to achieve their aims and objective. It thorough planning in an organization cannot be done without involving the act of budgeting. The management has the purpose of providing a feed – foreword process. The concept of feed-forward =process in to provide each manager with guideline for making operation decision on a day –to- day basic. Budgeting deals with plans and monitoring activities to ascertain whether they conform to the plans. This is the control and coordination aspect of budgeting.
Manufacturing industries can only achieve profit maximization by proper planned use of available resource. This is sustained when different activities are efficiently coordinated, and decisions taken in the organization are result oriented. Business organization requires the use of some techniques in the formula and adoption of planned and defined system and tools with a view to achiever set goals. Such tools and systems include budgetary variance analysis and budgetary control.
The process of setting goals to be achieve in the future time and determining how these goals are to be reached is described as PLANING, while the process of translating this planning into financial target can be described as BUDGETING.  Reg, H. Garrison, in his opinion, defined budget, thus, a budget is a detailed plan showing how resources will be require and used over some specify time interval. It repented a plan for the future expressed in a formal qualitative terms. The act of perpetrating a budget is called budgeting. The use of budget to control a firms activities is known as budgeting control ‘’.    
This project is organized in five chapters, which aimed at finding out the budget process used achieving the goals of a typical. Manufacturing, industry with profit maximization as its main objective.  
Chapter one is an introduction to the study concerning such issues as:
(1)     Statement of problem 
(2)      Purpose of the study
(3)      Statement of hypothesis
(4)      Research question
(5)     Scope and limitation of the study
(6)     Significant of the study
(7)     Definition of terms 
Chapter two present the literature review, which such issues as:
(1)  Definition of budget
(2)  Feature and function of budget
(3)  Preparation of budget
(4)  Types and methods of budget
(5)  Problems associated with budget
(6)  Planning function in an organization
(7)  Controlled function in an origination
(8)  Budget control and analysis of variance.  
Chapter three presents the research design methodology. The source of data collected for analysis, and treatment of some of the problems encountered during data collected were examined and analysed in detail in chapter four to enable us draw conclusion there by making recommendation.
Chapter five contains the summary of the research, recommendation and conclusion.  
1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM    
The management has his primary duty of achieving the objective of profit maximization of the company through budgeting .due to the state of our economy, and government policies, this goal is much hindered during the period of economic depression which features low capacity utilization, high interest rate shortage of foreign exchange to buy the needed, raw material. Management is filed with the problem of how to make use of available scarce resources your order to achieve the objective of profile maximization.   This research work is intended to help in determining and highlighting the problems that militate against the application and utilization of budgeting as a tool for planning and control in a manufacturing industry.
The research work will provide solution of the following problems.      
(1) Inability of the manufacturing company objectives                                     
(2) Insufficient appraisal of the company performance base on budgeting.
(3) Inability of officers in the cost centers to conform to guild line and attain the standard set in the organization. This is applicable to all workers
(4) Inadequate monitory of compliance with and deviation from department and entire budgets.
1.2    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY         
The purpose of this study includes the following: -
(1)     To show the importance of in getting as a tool for planning and controlling in the operation s of a manufacturing industry which has the maximization of profit ads its principal objectives
(2)     To identify the procedures adopted in the formulation and implementation of animal budget in Nigerian Breweries plc Enugu 
(3)     To determine whether there is a correlation between the type of budget implemented and their actually performance.
(4)     The study will determine whether or not budgeting control as a management tool contributes to the improvement of managerial efficiency and high productivity.
1.3     RESEARCH QUESTIONS 
(1)  How does managers use budgeting in planning and control in author the goals of a business?
(2)  How does decision making performed in a manufacturing industry using budgeting as a tool for planning and control?
(3)  How has utilization of resources achieved with the use of budgeting and budgetary control?   
1.4   STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS                     
The following are the basic for research in this study:
HI: Managers are using budgeting in planning and controlling the  business resources
HO: mangers are not using budging in planning and controlling the business resource.
HI: budgeting is a tool for effective decision making in manufacturing industry.
HI: utilizations of resource is achieved with the use of budgeting and budgetary control
HO: utilization of resource is not achieved e with the use of budgeting and budgetary control.        
1.5 SCOPES AND LIMITATION   OF THE STUDY        
The study of budgeting as a tool for planning and control in a manufacturing industry has its scope limited to manufacturing industry Nigeria. Among the major constraints is the fear of job security by some staff of the company might be unsafe if they grant interviews. Again funds available to the researcher and cost of printing the questionnaire to and from the respondents. Moreover there was retaining of time so as to come other course within the limited time.   1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In the business world the main objective is to maximize profit by providing goods and services of fair, comparative, and affordable prices no management can ignore profit maximization unless it will be stifled out of business.      Hence, this study is significant with the following reason:
(1)  The study will determine whether budgeting as tool for planning and control played any significant role toward ensuring portability and efficient rendering of goods and services.
(2)  Ascertain the role-play by the management in budgeting and whether they ensure to the budget.
(3)  Ascertain the role of budget as a tool for effective and efficient utilization of scare resources.
(4)    The study will help future researcher on budgeting and budgetary control with emphasis on manufacturing industry.  
1.7    DEFINITION OF TERMS
A BUDGET: The institution of cost and management accountants define budget as a plan quantified in monetary terms, prepared and approved prior to a define period usually showing planning income to be generated and or expenditure to be incurred during that period and the capital to be employed to attain that objective.  
BUDGETARY CONTROL: This is the different between planned (budgeted) and actual result (cost). This may be favorable where actual cost is less than a standard (budget) cost. If it unfavorable where actual cost is greater than standard (budgeted) cost. Alternative terms are MINUS OR PLUS variances, respectively.
ORGANISATION: This is all establishments whether government or privately owned.

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